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“Everyone thanks for tuning in to sat. Night. Live my name is jennifer mix of of it and i am a teacher tutor instructors for vinson review for a very time i m off of the director of tutoring for new york and connecticut tonight. We re gonna be talking about transitions for the writing and language section.
We have those little words or groups of words that connect or link. Sentences and ideas together. So without further ado. Let s go ahead and take a look at our first transition question so number nine.
When it comes to transition or number eight sorry when it comes to transitions. We want to make sure that we read the full context. Because if we read a sentence alone any of these transitions might sound okay. But we need to look and see how do the sentences.
Connect together so for number eight. The first sentence says dark chocolate contains less sugar and fewer calories than milk chocolate and we can just kind of pretend that we you don t really have a word here because this is what s changing in our answer. Choices. The word also so pretend that that s not there because it contains more antioxidants.
It may help prevent heart disease. So we want to ask ourselves how are these two sentences related. Well the first one is talking about some of the benefits of dark chocolate. So we have the advantages or benefits and the second sentence is seeing that this chocolate has more antioxidants and it might help prevent heart disease.
So that s also positive so these two ideas are connecting they re building upon one another. They re going in the same direction. So we want to look for the word answer choices that shows that they have something in common and that they re going in the same direction. So looking at our answer choices and remember ace is also we have also well if you re saying also also because it contains more antioxidants.
It may help prevent heart disease also building on two things. So. Let s keep that now. Let s take a look at choice b.
However well. However is going to show us a contrast right that s contrasting and that s not what we said. We said that the two sentences are agreeing with each other or building on onto each. Other so we can look at choice c.
Although. Well. Although is gonna go in the opposite direction as well. It s not building on two things.
And the last one here for example for example because for example because it contains more antioxidants that s not gonna work out that doesn t grammatically function and for example is it s stating a clarification or an example of something not building upon ideas. So it s not going to be a choice d. And choice. A is going to be the only one that works here.
So let s try another one number 24 again we have transitions so we see in our answer choices. What s changing our transition. Words and they re all followed by a comma. So well begin with the beginning of this paragraph.
Because we want to have the full context in some sentences. It s okay to read just the previous sentence and the sentence with the underlined portion and other ones. You might need a little bit more context. So this paragraph starts is world peace and unattainable ideal.
Since thousands of languages are spoken aloud across the globe communication. Among different populations is often strained. While english again will return that that while is not their english is growing as an international language non native speakers who feel that they are at a linguistic or her cultural disadvantage. Often resent its status as a lingua franca.
There s a lot going on here and we want to break it down to make sure that we don t quickly read and pick something that seems like it s okay. But doesn t actually correctly link the ideas together so we see here. Thousands of languages. Spoken across the globe and as a result communication.
Among different populations is often strained. That s the first part population is strained. Because there s so many different languages. Spoken then the non underlined portion after 24.
That little number. There says english is growing as an international language. So there s a couple things going on here this is actually followed by a comma and that com is not underlined. Which means that it must be correct.
So if we look at the next. Part non native speakers. Who feel that they re at a linguistic or cultural disadvantage often resent status of the lingua franca okay well in this case. We have a comma in the middle of the sentence.
And that first part it s got a word that s changing the second part doesn t have anything changing. So. The second part is correct. As written and we see that the second part is actually a complete idea or a complete sentence complete sentence.
So there s a little bit of grammar being tested here when we have a comma separating something in a complete sentence. We can have a complete sentence in the beginning part so that means that whatever word. We re gonna use whichever transition word. It is it needs to make that first part incomplete okay.
So let s let s put that into action. There s a lot of information. So if we look at joyce. A.
It says. While english is growing as an international language. Not complete right because its while it s growing if i just came up to you and i said that you would ask me well. While it s growing is an international language.
What right something s missing so that s incomplete and we we want that we want an incomplete portion at the beginning. Let s check the other ones and we re not even thinking about what the words themselves mean at this point. So. Tracy says.
Nonetheless english is growing as an international language well that can stand alone on its own regardless of what the word means in the context that would make it a complete sentence and then that second part after this comma here would also be complete so that s not gonna work because that would be a comma splice. If we just have two complete sentences separated only by a comma. So let s going on to choice c. However again that s that contrast word that we saw in the previous question.
However english is growing as an international language. That s complete so that s not gonna work and then finally choice d. In addition. English is growing is an international language.
Another complete sentence. Situation so gene can t work. In the only one that works is going to be choice a so thinking about the words. I mean aside grammatically.
A is the only one that works here so sometimes when it comes to transition words. Yes. It s helpful to know what the words mean and you should study them if you come across transition words. When you re doing your practice.
And you say hmm notwithstanding. I ve never seen that word before jot it down look it up because you re likely to see the same kind of transition words test it over and over so you do want to keep track of that. But you also want to notice that once in a while you ll have something like that comma in a non underlined. Portion and they might be testing you on grammar as well as a transition word.
Okay so let s try another question here number 3. I got a big chunk of text and when we look and see well where s numbers free it s over here. We want to go back up just enough to make sure that we have the full context to figure out which of these answer choices which of our transition words gonna best link the ideas so let s bump it up to around here where it says. The central challenge of maintaining ecosystem.
Especially by artificial means is that ecosystems have a tendency to change particularly with the dual influence of human reacting and a rapidly altering climate you can just disregard just reacting here that s obviously another question so it sound a little bit funny disregard that grammatical part there so then our next part again just regard the word. That s underlined one career that is grown by leaps and bounds in the last fifty years is that the soil cup is that of the soil conservationist whose land use surveys guide both public and private entities as to how to work within sustainable ecosystems. So i want to see how do these two sentences link together are they agreeing with each other are they contrasting each. Other what s happening here so in this first sentence that i write here we see the central chou.
A challenge of maintaining ecosystem is that they have this tendency to change and it s talking about this rapidly altering climate and our next sentence where we have the underlying portion it s talking about this career. That s grown by leaps and bounds. And that s the slow conservationist. So we might want to back up and just read one more sentence.
Before just to get a little bit more context here in this paragraph. The very first sentence said as people become more sensitive the idea of preserving certain ecosystems. Yet more attention must be paid to the land so this first sentence in this paragraph is talking about them being the people being more sensitive about preserving certain ecosystems. So that s gonna give us a little bit more context to fully understand what comes you for the underlying portion and number three so this whole first part is about the importance of preserving things and now the second part.
We re underlined portion is is and as a result. The soil conservationist is a career that seems to be very important. So they re kind of building upon one another because this that so because people are becoming more sensitive this idea of preserving the environment. It makes sense then that one career that s gonna grow is someone who is involved in conservation efforts in this case with soil.
So we want to find our transition. Word that is agreeing or showing that it s going in that same direction. So if we look at choice a still still one career that s grown by leaps and bounds. That s not what we re looking for there still is not showing the same direction.
It s usually gonna be something of contrast like i might say it s pouring outside. Still. I m gonna go run five miles so it s showing that the spite something i m still gonna do something that s not the situation in this question. So a is gonna be out.
Nonetheless is very similar to still. I can use the same example. I just used it s raining outside nonetheless. I m gonna go around five miles so those are both showing a sort of contrast.
So despite now choice sees us finally well finally is after you ve had several things happening you re looking at a sequence of events. I did this and i did that and finally i did this other thing we don t have a sequence of events here so ste is not gonna work cuz. We re not looking at chronology your time. Hopefully is choice d.
Let s look at this therefore. So therefore is what i was talking about earlier. It s as a result because people are more sensitive this idea about preservation of these ecosystems. They re gonna be more inclined to be in this career of soil conservationist.
So therefore. It s building upon your ideas all right so we can go take a look at another of these transition. Examples here so number 12. Again we see four answer choices with transition word or words.
Sometimes. We see more than one word in our transition. Answer choice usually followed by a comma so go ahead and read the full paragraph here and we see nobel prizes have been given since 1901 as a way to honor outstanding achievements in physics chemistry literature medicine and economics. There may be some controversy as to who earns these awards in many cases and written we don t see this word there can be no doubt that the winners are always accomplished in their fields and have contributed something significant to their disciplines and the world at large so in this case.
We have a semicolon so this transition word is part of the same sentence as the previous chunk of text. So we want to see how do these two bits of tax relate. So the first part says. There may be some controversy.
There s some controversy that means that not everybody agrees. There are some people saying one thing. Some people think something else and as in regard to who earns these awards. So that s a keyword controversy and you always want to underline the important keywords in the bits of the sentence to make sure that you re not missing any little details.
So the next part there can be no doubt that the winners are always accomplished. There s no doubt that s important that means that were certain that whoever wins one of these prizes is accomplished in his or her field okay so if we re looking at controversy versus no doubt we see a contrast right in one situation people are not agreeing. But in regard to who wins regardless of who won they re definitely here she s definitely accomplished in the field. So we re gonna look for a transition word that denotes some sort of a contrast.
So choice hey we have therefore and we saw earlier therefore we use that one move building upon ideas. So it s not gonna work here because we re looking for a contrast. So we can get rid of a for example is literally. What it sounds like and we ve seen this one again earlier for example.
I like all kinds of ice cream for example. I don t care if it s chocolate or strawberry right you re clarifying you re giving a specific example of something and in the situation. We re not giving a specific examples of that kind of a weird one that wouldn t work here we can get rid of that and chew a fee. However you ll see however a live notice in this selection of answers and questions we ve seen however few times.
So however is always going to denote a contrast so let s look at however within the sentence to make sure that seems okay so there may be some controversy as to who earns these awards in many cases. However there can be no doubt that the winners are always accomplished in their field and have contributed something significant to their disciplines and the world at large that checks out sounds good in the sentence in terms of does a degree dramatically and everything. And it s a contrast. So let s keep that and then take a look at choice tiegs.
You always want to review all of your answer. Choices fighting. Lis fighting lis. There can be no doubt that s not gonna work fighting leaves not not linking those ideas together kind of funny in the sentence.
So the only one that works here and the only one that actually shows us that contrast that we re looking for is the word. However still number twelve is gonna be choice c alright. So let s let s try another one number 23. We ll start with the text from the beginning so the most obvious facet of global warming is the rise in global temperatures what many do not understand quite as well however or pretending that that words they re not there are the factors that contribute to the rise in global temperatures and then it goes on to say the rise in carbon dioxide levels for instance is commonly cited as a reason but what exactly does this kind of compound.
Do so we don t really need to look at that last sentence here for this particular question we want to focus on the first term. So the very first sentence says that the most obvious facet of global warming is this rise in global temperature. So it s very obvious people are noticing the temperature was rising. So we want to look and say well how does that relate to the next sentence and this is what many do not understand many do not understand quite as well are the factors that contribute to the rise in global temperatures so a lot of people are aware that this rise in temperature is occurring.
But there s a contrast but they don t really understand the why or the how behind it so we re looking for a contrast. Let me got a little ahead of myself there let me spell that word correctly contrast. We re looking for another contrast. One here slow goes through the answer choices and see.
Which answer answers have a contrast word so choice a we have however which we saw in the last one worked so we ll hang on to that one cuz. We know that it s a contrast okay look at choice b. There by i mean won t everybody is going to be going in the same direction. If you re thereby doing something you re kind of greeing or building onto it so that s not going to show a contrast and it can be choice b.
And correspondingly correspondingly. I will do this that s also a green just with something it would agree with the previous sentence and we re not looking for agreement. Again. So we can get rid of that and guess.
What choice d. Thus. Also is agreeing with or going. In that same direction.
So b c. And d. None of them are showing us. The contrast and the only one that gives the contrast is choice a and we can just read the full sentence with it to make sure everything s okay.
But it says what many do not understand quite as well however are the factors that contributes the rise in global temperatures so that checks out and so if you notice by using a process of elimination you can get rid of answer choices that just don t do what they need to do if we need to have a word that s contrasting or agreeing with we re not going to select something that doesn t do what it needs to do let s try another one number 11. This is a really big paragraph here don t worry too much so. What i want to point out is if you look here at 11. This is the very end of that paragraph.
So when we re looking at a sentence at the end a lot of times. It s gonna do something perhaps summarizing. Some of the main ideas that were discussed in that paragraph. So you want to view the full paragraph to make sure we have all of that contact context.
So we ll start from the beginning. And it says. However paternity leave is not just about what potential employees won there s a second reason that paternity leave policies are so important they bring attention to a larger societal issue. Not enough emphasis has been placed on the importance of both parents being involved in the earliest stages of child s life paternity.
Leave allows fathers to bond with their children earlier. Participate in the household more actively and raise children with a greater sense of gender equality. Blanke paternity leave not only benefits a lone employee and his or her family it improves society as a whole so we want to look and see how do these connect so it not only benefits. A lone employee.
It improves society as a whole so you want to say does this agree with or disagree. With what came before it so we can go back to the previous sentence. It tells us that paternity leave allows fathers to bond with their children participate in these households. More actively and raise their children with a greater sense of gender equality.
So these are all positive things right we just saw all these positive attributes of this this idea of paternity leave all the advantages so these two the paragraph itself and the final sentence are all going to be about the positive effects or consequences of paternity leave so we want to look at a word that is building upon the ideas or agreeing with what we saw before all right. Agreeing with an even potentially clarifying even further. So. If we look at choice.
A in other words in other words so a lot of times. What we see in other words that s a clarifying thing if you re further explaining something or giving more detail about it that performs the function that i was just discussing right. It s it s adding on to that and clarifying otherwise. That s not going in the same direction here so otherwise you can do this otherwise you can do that so it s more of like an or sort of situation not an and we re looking for an and we re building upon ideas.
So it s not gonna be be completely paternity leave not only benefits a loan employee and his or her family and improve society as a whole feel like completely that s just funky that s gonna be out and then alternatively. So if you have an alternative. It s another option something that s different. But we don t want an alternative.
We re going with maternity leave and we re seeing why and how it has these positive effects. So it s not gonna be alternatively. Because we re not looking for an intern and we re looking for that in other words and that clarification and building upon of ideas. So number eight.
It s gonna be choice a all right so those are just a few of our transition examples you will definitely see transitions on the sat they tend to be very difficult. Because we have to force ourselves to stop and take our time read the sentence or even sentences. Before the underlined portion as well as the full sentence. With and up until the end of that sentence with the underlined portion so that we have the full context and you always want to ask yourself are they going in the same direction and the opposite direction are the ideas contrasting are they being build upon what s going on and what s the relationship those are the main things that you want to ask yourself.
When you re looking at transitions and make sure that you go through each answer choice carefully and pay attention to those details keep that pencil moving and underlined keywords. So that you see the relationships. Thank you everybody for tuning in i will see you all next time ” ..
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