# Capital gains and losses (Schedule D)

2017 schedule d instructions This is a topic that many people are looking for. star-trek-voyager.net is a channel providing useful information about learning, life, digital marketing and online courses …. it will help you have an overview and solid multi-faceted knowledge . Today, star-trek-voyager.net would like to introduce to you Capital gains and losses (Schedule D) . Following along are instructions in the video below:

“Reporting small business or self employment income on schedule. C. Report. Any capital gains or or losses.

On schedule d a lot of people won t have any capital gains. But if you sell securities or other capital assets held outside of a retirement account. You ll have to fill out schedule d. And don t worry.

The irs has devised a system to help remind you of the need to report capital gains transactions. If you sell any securities your broker or mutual fund should send you a 1099 b. Which lists the proceeds of the sale since the 1099 b lists the proceeds of the sale. You ll have to include at least the gross proceeds on schedule d.

However. The 1099 b currently doesn t show the actual gain or loss. You realized for that you re largely on your own. When it comes to capital gains calculations your so called basis in the property is important in its simplest sense your basis is the cost of the property.

But your basis can be adjusted up or down depending on circumstances. Let s say you invested one thousand dollars in a mutual fund whose shares were selling for 10 your one thousand dollar investment gives you 100 shares further assume that you made this investment in early january. The fund moved up over the year and on december 15th of the same year. The fund distributed to you 60 in dividends you reinvested these dividends in five shares of the fund.

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When the fund was 12 a share a few days later on december 20th you sold all your holdings in the fund. Because you thought. The market would go down. Assume your selling price was 12 a share.

So your sale of 105 shares at 12 a share yielded 1260 dollars your mutual fund then sends you a 1099 b. Which shows 1260 dollars in gross proceeds so what s your total gain on the sale you invested 1000. Back in january so you re reportable gain is 260 dollars right wrong you re reportable gain is actually only 200 not two hundred and sixty dollars that s because the 60 in reinvested dividends are added to the basis of your holdings like any additional purchase so your cost basis in the mutual fund is the original 1000 investment plus. The 60 in reinvested dividends or one thousand and sixty dollars.

When you subtract this from your gross proceeds of one thousand two hundred and sixty dollars you get a net gain of two hundred dollars and in case. You re wondering you do have to pay taxes on the 60 in distributed dividends that you received the 60 in dividends are reported on a 1099 div and our taxed on schedule b so if you reinvest your mutual fund dividends but don t adjust your cost basis up you ll wind up paying taxes twice on that dividend. You ll pay ordinary income taxes once when the dividend is distributed and capital gains taxes once when you sell if you don t adjust your cost basis up unfortunately. Calculating your capital gains can get difficult the example.

I gave was simple. But imagine if your mutual fund makes monthly distributions and you buy and sell chunks of the fund during the year determining your cost basis in this case can get complicated to help you determine your capital gain or loss. Many of the larger mutual funds are sending so called average cost data sheets to their investors. These greatly simplify your calculation of capital gains or losses.

Because you already know the proceeds and the fund company tells you the average cost. There are however several ways to determine the cost basis for mutual fund shares that you sell one is the average cost basis. Another is the first end first out or fifo method. This is the irs default method.

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A third is the specific shares method in this case. You tell your mutual fund. Usually through a letter. Which shares you want to sell if you want to minimise your gain.

You sell the shares which have the highest cost basis assuming the share price of your fund. Generally goes up the irs default method of fifo results in the highest taxed. The specific shares method can yield the lowest tax and the average cost method yields attacks between the other two you can choose to calculate your cost basis with any of the three methods. But once you ve started to use a method you must continue to use that method.

Until you completely cash out of the fund. So which method is the best to use of the three methods. I d use the average cost method in most cases especially if your mutual fund already provides you with this information. I d use the average cost method for bond funds or stock funds that don t show large capital gains.

If you use the average cost method you might have to pay a little more in capital gains taxes. But you ll save yourself some tedious calculations. However if you have a fund that has large capital gains using the specific shares method can save you a lot in taxes finally. Remember that this whole discussion.

Only applies to securities held outside of a retirement account you can have plenty of mutual funds stocks bonds and trade to your heart s content inside a retirement account as long as they re inside a retirement account you won t have to pay a cent in capital gains taxes you will however eventually have to pay ordinary income taxes when you pull your money out in retirement. Still you won t have to worry about your cost basis for retirement accounts. Because your cost basis in retirement account. Assets is usually zero that is everything you pull out is subject to taxes at ordinary income rates since ordinary income rates historically have been higher than capital gains rates you may pay a little more in taxes in the future.

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But retirement accounts overall offer great tax savings. So you should invest in retirement accounts. First and then in unsheltered mutual funds or other securities second. See my tape on mutual funds for more information on the tax aspects of various funds and don t think all this talk about capital.

Gains taxes is only for the so called bridge if you own a home you ll have to worry about capital gains taxes. Whenever you sell a home you ll have to report it on form 2119. Which flows into schedule d. Although you ll have to worry about calculating your cost basis.

And realize. Gains you may not have to actually pay taxes. When you sell your home. Especially if you trade up to a larger home assume you paid.

100000 for a home in. 1990 in. 1993. You spent 10000.

To add a room in the basement. You sold. The house in 1996. For a hundred and fifty thousand dollars after sales commissions normally under these circumstances you d have a taxable gain of forty thousand dollars.

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That s the one hundred and fifty thousand dollars from the sale minus your cost basis of a hundred and ten thousand dollars note. How the addition of the room raised your cost basis by ten thousand dollars. Make sure to keep records of these improvements as long as you own a home. However.

If you buy a new home for more than the. Net selling price of your. Old. Home you can defer that 40000.

Gain. So if you buy a new home that costs. At least one hundred and fifty thousand dollars. You won t owe any taxes note.

These numbers are only approximate because of slight changes due to selling expenses and fix up costs like painting your old home still you generally can defer paying much or all of your capital. Gains taxes on the sale of your home also note that politics currently are talking about eliminating capital gains taxes on home sales because the record keeping is complex and the tax doesn t generate much revenue. But until passage of a new law you ll have to console yourself with a truly once in a lifetime goodie for older folks who sell their home if you sell your home after age 55. You can take advantage of a one time once per couple exclusion of up to one hundred and twenty five thousand dollars in gains that you ve accumulated in your home.

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Schedule D

After reporting small business or self-employment income on Schedule C, report any capital gains or losses on Schedule D. A lot of people won t have any capital gains transactions, but if you sell securities or other capital assets held outside a retirement account, you ll have to fill out Schedule D.

And don t worry, the IRS has devised a system to help remind you of the need to report capital gains transactions. If you sell any securities, your broker or mutual fund should send you a 1099-B which lists the proceeds of the sale.

Since the 1099-B lists the proceeds of the sale, you ll have to include at least the gross proceeds on Schedule D. However, the 1099-B currently doesn t show the actual gain or loss you realized. For that, you re largely on your own.

Your cost basis in an asset

When it comes to capital gains calculations, your so-called basis in the property is important. In it s simplest sense, your basis is the cost of the property. But your basis can be adjusted up or down depending on circumstances.

Let s say you invested \$1,000 in a mutual fund whose shares were selling for \$10. Your \$1,000 investment gives you 100 shares. Further assume that you made this investment in early January.

The fund moved up over the year, and on December 15 of the same year the fund distributed to you \$60 in dividends. You reinvested these dividends in 5 shares of the fund when the fund was \$12 a share. A few days later, on December 20 you sold all your holdings in the fund because you thought the market would go down.

Assume your selling price was \$12 a share, so your sale of 105 shares at \$12 a share yielded \$1,260. Your mutual fund then sends you a 1099-B which shows \$1,260 in gross proceeds.

So what s your total gain on the sale? You invested \$1,000 back in January, so your reportable gain is \$260, right? Wrong.

Add reinvested dividends to your cost basis

Your reportable gain is actually only \$200, not \$260. That s because the \$60 in reinvested dividends are added to the basis of your holdings like any additional purchase.

So your cost basis in the mutual fund is the original \$1,000 investment plus the \$60 in reinvested dividends, or \$1,060. When you subtract this from your gross proceeds of \$1,260, you get a net gain of \$200.

And in case you re wondering, you do have to pay taxes on the \$60 in distributed dividends that you received. The \$60 in dividends are reported on a 1099-DIV, and are taxed on Schedule B.

So if you reinvest your mutual fund dividends but don t adjust your cost basis up, you ll wind up paying taxes twice on that dividend. You ll pay ordinary income taxes once when the dividend is distributed, and capital gains taxes once when you sell if you don t adjust your cost basis up.

Unfortunately, calculating your capital gains can get difficult. The example I gave was simple, but imagine if your mutual fund makes monthly distributions, and you buy and sell chunks of the fund during the year. Determining your cost basis in this case can get complicated.

How to calculate cost basis (average, FIFO, specific)

To help you determine your capital gain or loss, many of the larger mutual funds are sending so-called average cost data sheets to their investors. These greatly simplify your calculation of capital gains or losses because you already know the proceeds, and the fund company tells you the average cost.

There are, however, several ways to determine the cost basis for mutual fund shares that you sell. One is the average cost basis. Another is the first-in-first-out or FIFO method. This is the IRS default method.

A third is the specific shares method. In this case you tell your mutual fund, usually through a letter, which shares you want to sell. If you want to minimize your gain, you sell the shares which have the highest cost basis.

Average cost is overall best method

Assuming the share price of your fund generally goes up, the IRS default method of FIFO results in the highest tax, the specific shares method can yield the lowest tax, and the average cost method yields a tax between the other two.

You can choose to calculate your cost basis with any of the three methods, but once you ve started to use a method, you must continue to use that method until you completely cash out of the fund. So which method is the best to use?

Of the three methods, I d use the average cost method in most cases, especially if your mutual fund already provides you with this information. I d use the average cost method for bond funds or stock funds that don t show large capital gains.

Don t worry about cost basis for retirement accounts

Capital gains on home sales

Copyright 1996, David Luhman.

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