Saturated Solution and Equilibrium Water Chemistry

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“Guys this lesson will be looking at saturated solutions at equilibrium. So when we re re looking at a solution. We re looking at a water or another solvent and re putting in copper sulphur. In this case.

Adding it into the water to form a dilute copper sulfate solution. If we keep adding more it becomes more concentrated and if we keep going we can saturate this solution. So we ll just just discuss what that means so when an ionic solute dissolves in water eventually. The ions on the solid are dissolving at the same rate as ions in the solution on recrystallizing.

So if we put a lot of copper sulfate in we ll have a concentrated copper sulfate solution. But if you keep going we re gonna have iron sorry copper sulfate always dissolving out. But then we re also getting a lot of copper sulfate from the solution coming back in and recrystallizing. So that s what this is meaning.

It s the same rate of both ways. So you can think of it. Like you have a classroom full of people and then outside another classroom full of people and if we re we have a set amount one person goes out one person comes in we re having a same rate of exchange. So that s what this means if we were to have a lot of people in one room and no one on the outside and we keep going out that s more like this one having a dilute solution and going to a concentrated solution.

So we re the crystal and we re going outside. And we re forming a solution outside okay so at this time dissolving and recrystallizing continue so we re having stuff going into solution stuff coming out of solution. But the concentration of the solution remains the same and what we what this is called is called a saturated solution. Because there s only so much you can put into the solution.

And when when we have a saturated solution. What happens is that we ve reached equilibrium. So that s the concept of going in and out of the classroom at the same rate. So this one is we re having copper sulfate.

Forming crystals at the same rate as dissolving into the water so saturated solution contains a maximum amount of dissolved solute at a given temperature in the presence of an undissolved solute. So that means. It s still going to be crystals at the bottom of the test tube or the beaker unsaturated solutions contain less than this so that means they can always keep being dissolved into the solution. And there will never be a crystal at the bottom at the end of it so an example of this is the potassium sulfate solution.

It has a solubility of torr grams of the salt per 100 grams of water at 25 degrees. Celsius. If we were to increase from 12 grams. To say 20 grams.

Possesing. Sulfate and shake it with 100 grams of water. There s always going to be excess solids. So about 8 grams.

Of solid at the bottom. And this settles at the bottom. Because the if the solution already has enough potassium sulfate in it and the amount of potassium sulfate. Dissolving is equal to the amount of potassium sulfate becoming crystal again so what we call it it s saturated.

If we were to repeat the experiment with 6 grams of sodium sulfate with a hundred grams of water shake. It so it s all dissolved. We will have an unsaturated solution. Because there s nothing left at the bottom because the maximum amount of solute for the 100 grams of water hasn t been reached yet.

But if we increase it so the mass of the solute required to form a saturated solution. Depends on the nature of the solute. So if we have water and remembered dissolving the solute in water. It s not always the same mass that we need to get saturation compared to another solvent like chloroform.

So sodium chloride will form a saturated solution in water. When we put 36 grams of salt dissolved in 100 grams of water at 25 degrees celsius..


But if a saturated solution of sodium chloride is required at a higher temperature. So not 25. We re saying like in degrees in this case. That means we need to put more salt in there to get saturation.

So we need 37 point 5 grams. Instead of what we had before to dissolve. It so if we make this at 70 degrees. Celsius and saturate.

The solution. So that means. There s going to be crystals left at the bottom. We leave it to cool to 25 degrees again we re going to have excess solute about 15 grams excess solute and this will recrystallize at the bottom to maintain this the saturation of the solution so if at 70 degrees.

We need we usually need a larger mass to reach saturation if we were to cool it back down. We usually don t need as much and then this excess will be then just recrystallize at the bottom so dynamic equilibrium is when the rate of the dissolving solid. So the amount of solid to liquid to a clear solution is the same as the recrystallizing so coming out of solution back into a crystal form. So what we do is we write.

It as solute as undissolved is both arrows in equilibrium with the solute dissolved. So in any reaction system. If the rate forward and the right back is the same. We say it s an equilibrium.

So it s just like there s no net movement of anything. It s the x. The same amount of moles going both ways at equilibrium. There is no macroscopic change.

But at macroscopic level. We can see a change an atomic level in it because continuously so macroscopic change is what we re looking what we can see so. When we look at the de bakker. The salts will always will just sit at the bottom.

And we can see the salts not changing in shape. Really or anything like that macroscopic changes in atomic level. That means the atoms and the molecules are moving a lot they re going to solution they re coming out of solution. So.

But we can t see that so we we only can really see the macroscopic that there s no change. But really there s a lot of change happening at the microscopic and atomic level this reaction is reversible in a dynamic equilibrium. And it means we write it with two arrows one pointing one way and the other arrow pointing the other way the system should be a closed system. So that means no matter and no energy can enter or leave that means.

It s just sitting there by itself and the rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse reaction. So the forward reaction can be considered as salt going into aqueous solution. And the reverse is the solution going coming back out into a crystal form. So that means they re both equal same amounts happening at the same time macroscopic properties are constant and therefore the color.

The pressure the state. The temperature don t change. But the concentration of and also the concentration of reactants and products are also constant. Because the forward reaction is the same as the back reaction.

But macroscopic changes continually take place between reactants and products because we can see the atom is moving from the crystal structure into the solution and back from the solution into the crystal structure. So equilibrium in a saturated sodium chloride solution over a long period. The shape of the crystal can be seen to change. So.

When you put in say a salt rock of salt or a sugar cube. You can see that the the change change are the shape changes from like a cube structure..


And it kind of like morphs and then melts and then turns into nothing if it s not reaching equilibrium. Yet so we can see like here we put it in first of all it s an ice cube shape after a while it kind of melts. A bit kind of goes a bit funny shaped and then if it hits equilibrium. We can t really see any changes.

Unless the shape is changing. But we don t see the atomic level of things coming back into the crystal and coming out. So careful measurements show that the mass of the crystal. Doesn t change because in equilibrium.

The forward and back reactions are the same. But the solution has always remained saturated sodium ions and chloride ions continually come out and break free from the crystal. So coming out of the crystal into the water and also continually ions floating around in the water at going back into the crystal and forming forming the crystal structure on the outside of it and we can write this as a chemical chemical equation sodium chloride in the solid form is put into water and we we get sodium ions in aqueous solution and chloride ions into aqueous solution. So that s our forward reaction sodium ions and chloride ions are also continually attracted to the surface of the crystal.

So remember the crystal is made up of sodium. Positively charged and negatively charged chloride atoms ions and that can attract the ions from the solution back into the crystal. And this can cause a precipitation so it s coming back in forming a crystal structure. A solid again and then the backward reaction.

We can write it as sodium and chloride come together to form the solid and we need to put the s there to show that it s in solid form so in the dynamic equilibrium. There s a balance between dissolution so going into solution and precipitation coming out of solution forming a solid the solution always remains saturated and precipitation processes occur at different locations on the crystal surface so precipitation can occur anywhere on the surface of this crystal. So the crystal continually changes shape because sometimes maybe a lot more will come on this side. And precipitate out compared to this compared to here.

So this will be eaten away. And then this bit will form a bit of a blob and the shape will always change so sodium and chloride ions in the soil are continually dissolving as well to give free ions while other free sodium chloride ions in the solution are always coming back in and recrystallizing. So that s the rate of forward and back reactions. And they re meant to be they re equal in equilibrium in an unsaturated solution the dynamic equilibrium doesn t exist because remember we haven t reached saturation point so that means all the crystals are going this dissolve into the water ions keep going out and but there s not enough ions in the water to come back in and form the formulas.

Salt so crystals will continue to dissolve. But precipitation doesn t occur yet until saturation point so when an ionic solid dissolves in water the crystal structure. The substance is broken down. Because remember the water will come in attached to the ions pull them out and distribute them evenly throughout the solution.

So ions are also i always distributed evenly throughout the solution and for an ionic solid to dissolve the following must take place electrostatic forces between the positive and negative ions must be overcome to break the crystal apart intermolecular forces between polar water molecules need to overcome to make the space for the ions to come in so we need to break apart the water molecules to fit in some chloride ions or some sodium ions attractive forces must form between the positive and negative ions surrounding the water molecules so we need to make sure that the water can by and will not bind. But can interact with the ions. So it really needs to be ironed and polar molecules to interact to form a solution. So legal ionic solids such as potassium nitrate can be dissolved in water and if tractive forces between the ions and the water molecules are strong enough to break up the crystal lattice.

So the ions are broken up. And then they can bind with the water. And then ions will be surrounded by polar water molecules to either the pot low negative. Side or the positive side depending on which what the charge is on the ion.

So for ionic solids. When we dissolve them if we reach saturation will have a equilibrium. So that means we have the rate of forward reaction so things going into the solution equal to the amount of ions coming back out of solution into the crystal structure and with that we can say there s a dynamic equilibrium. So that means it s always changing and why we can see the crystal structure of like a sock cube or sugar cube changing and kind of melting away.

But still having the same mass at the bottom so with that we can answer some questions question. 13. A saturated solution of iodine in alcohol. At 25 degrees.

Celsius is in equilibrium with some undissolved iodine crystals. Write the equation for the equilibrium. So the iodine and alcohol are written here iodine. I to diatomic molecule alcohol here and because it says it s in equilibrium.

That means. There s forward reaction..


And there s also backwards reaction. So we need to make sure we do the double arrow here so the alcohol. Really isn t doing anything in their reaction. It s the solvent.

It s really the iodine coming in and out of solution. So what happens is that we have this an aqueous solution the iodine with the alcohol and then the iodine here as a solid and the rate of it becoming a solid is equal to the rate of the solid going into solution so question. 14. A saturated solution of lead in alcohol.

At 25 degrees. Celsius is in equilibrium with some undissolved led crystals. Describe the changes that would occur in the temperature. If it was lowered to 10 degrees as the temperature is lowered all particles will lose kinetic energy.

Because remember heat is a form of energy. We put into the system and this makes the molecules vibrate heaps and move a lot as this occurred. Fewer and fewer of the solid particles would have the energy to escape into solution and more and more particles are in the solution will precipitate out so that means if we have lots of energy in there they can break off the crystal. Because we re putting in energy and they re shaking and then breaking bonds.

But if we lower the temperature. This doesn t happen as much and that means they kind of grow slower and slower means. There s more chance of intermolecular bond to deform and therefore we can get it to form as solids easier. So the original equilibrium would be disturbed.

Because we changed the temperature and the rate of the forward reaction will start increasing and the rate of the backward. Reaction will start decreasing and a new equilibrium will be established so at this new temperature. We will have either more or less solid in this case. Because we lowered the temperature.

We should have more solid and the when we hit equilibrium the rate of this forward and backward reaction is equal again. But at a different mass that s in the solution and a different mass that s in a crystal form so next question. 15. Explain the movement of ions in the solution.

So here we have let an id iodide ions in solution. And it s a set. It says. A saturation solution.

So let an iodide ions in this solid are continually dissolving to give free ions. So free lead ions and free iodide ions and also on the other hand the ions. So let islands and iodide ions are also continually precipitating and forming a solid. So that s what happens in equilibrium question.

16. Define the terms saturated solution. So it s a saturated solution is one that contains a maximum amount of dissolved solute at a given temperature in the presence of a non dissolved solute so that means. There s always gonna be some crystals at the bottom of the beaker question.

17. I think crystal has a brown has a brown color and dissolves in arsenic acid solution. I m showing in this equation. Here.

What observations do you think will observations do you think you can make from it and explain why so first of all the reaction is reversible and reaches equilibrium. Because we know that everything can form an equilibrium. It s just at what point next the iodine dissolves in the solution. So the brown color gradually disappears.

However the brown color does not completely disappear. Because we just said it reaches equilibrium..


So that means. There s always a little bit of solid at the bottom. And therefore the solid is what makes it the brown color. If we if it hasn t reached equilibrium.

Then there won t be any brown color at the bottom. Because it hasn t reached the amount or the concentration needed. Yet so all you need to remember from this lesson is really that dynamical equilibrium is the rate of forward reaction is equal to the rate of backward reaction and usually this happens at saturation. So when we hit a certain point.

We have completely filled up the water space with as many ions as we can and therefore. We can t dissolve any more in there and we re left with a little bit of crystals at the bottom. And if we look at it really closely under an atomic level. We can see that there s a continual process of ions going into solution and a continual process of ireland coming back out of solution into the crystal structure.

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