HUMAN DIGESTIVE SYSTEM Made Easy- Gastrointestinal System

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“Small intestine is about five meters long. And about one inch in diameter based on on these measurements. You would expect the surface area of the small intestine to be six square feet. But it s actually around 2700 square feet or about the size of a tennis court in this video.

We will discuss the human digestive system watch to the end for some more amazing facts like this i want to start this video by asking a simple question if you remove more than half of your liver. What is the time taken to regenerate it completely is it a one week b. 1. Month c.

6. Months or d. 1. Year.

Write your answers in the comments. Below. Let s see who gets it right at the end of the video. So the human digestive system essentially consists of two parts the digestive tract and organs of digestion without the organs.

The digestive tract is just a tube and probably the same stuff will come out that you will put in without the action of the enzymes from these organs. The digestive organs release. Several chemicals that turn this 30. Feet long tube into a powerful digesting factory that converts complex food materials into simple easy to absorb small molecules that are then utilized by the body for various purposes.

The human digestive system starts with the mouth the mouth consists of several structures that perform the first step of digestion the teeth tongue palate help to chew the food. Which divides the food into several hundred pieces. This serves two important purposes. It makes swallowing of the food much easier.

And it increases the surface area of the food making the action of enzymes much faster. The mouth also receives the cretians from salivary glands. The parotid gland. The submandibular gland.

The sublingual gland and also many lavery glands. The saliva contains two important enzymes in the emil ace and the lipase. Which helped to start the digestion of starch by breaking it into smaller sugars and fats into simple lipids..

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The tongue also contains thousands of taste receptors contained in structures known as taste buds. These give the information about the four basic tastes. So after the food has been chewed and mixed with the saliva. It then passes into the pharynx and then into the esophagus through a series of controlled muscle contractions known as a deglutition reflex.

The pharynx is a conducting zone. That is a part of both of the respiratory tract as well as the digestive system. The pharynx continues down as esophagus. But it also receives the opening of larynx anteriorly.

The epiglottis is a piece of cartilage that covers the opening of larynx when we are breathing the epiglottis is open like it is in this situation. The esophagus is collapsed and the air passes forward into the larynx when we eat the larynx opening is closed and this prevents the food from entering into the respiratory tract. And it is passed down into the esophagus instead the next part of the digestive system is the east of vegas. Which is a 25 centimeter long muscular tube through which the food passes into the stomach.

It passes through the posterior mediastinum and enters. The abdomen through a hole in the diaphragm and joins the stomach the whole length of the esophagus contains smooth muscles. Which propel the food forward through muscular contractions known as peristalsis these muscles are very strong at the lower end to form the lower esophageal sphincter. Which has a valve like function.

It remains constricted at all times to prevent the contents of stomach from entering into the esophagus except. When we eat and drink to allow one way movement of food. When this muscle loses its tone. It leads to many diseases like the gastroesophageal reflux disease.

The next organ in the digestive tract is the stomach stomach is a jay shaped organ and it is connected to the eso vegas at the upper end and the duodenum at the lower end. It has a vital role in digestion. It has large volume so you can eat large amounts of food at one time. Which is digested slowly by controlling its release through the stomach.

Although it s true you can live without your stomach. But the patients in which the stomach has been removed have to eat very small quantities of food frequently the stomach has layers of smooth muscles in its walls. Which turn the stomach into a literal mixer. The layers of the stomach wall are mucosa submucosa muscular layer and the outermost coating the serosa.

The smooth muscles caused waves of muscular contractions known as peristalsis. Which cause mechanical churning of the food. The stomach releases..

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Powerful strong chemicals. Like the hydrochloric acid. Sodium. Chloride and powerful enzymes like pepsinogen.

Which digests proteins since these chemicals can damage the stomach wall mucus. Which is secreted by the gastric glands forms. A protective layer on the inner wall of the stomach. The wall also secretes bicarbonate ions and has tight cell junctions to prevent damage from hcl all these factors prevent the damage to the wall and allow maintenance of a low ph.

Which is required for the action of pepsin. Which is the active enzyme. The lower part of the stomach is called pylorus. And it also has a strong smooth muscle sphincter.

Which opens usually after one hour of taking a meal till. Then the food has been converted into a semi liquid form known as time. Which is slowly released forward next the food passes into the small intestine. Which is a 5 meter.

Long tube divided into 3 parts duodenum jejunum and ileum the small intestine has the main job of digestion and absorption of food. This is performed by abundant enzymes through the liver pancreas. Gallbladder and a small intestinal wall itself. The first part.

The duodenum is the shortest. Which is about 25 centimetres in length since it is connected to stomach at the upper end it receive strong acidic chyme. Which can potentially damage its wall. So it produces bicarbonate rich alkaline secretions that neutralize the acid.

So you can see in this diagram. The duodenum receives secretions from gall bladder pancreas and liver. These secretions contain numerous enzymes that digest the food and convert it into simple molecules that are easy to absorb and utilize by the body. The liver.

Which is a vital organ of digestive system produces bile. Which consists of water 97 bile salts bile pigments and mucus these secretions are delivered to the duodenum via the common bile duct. The gall bladder is used to store bile and concentrated since we eat a lot of fat in our diet..

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Which is not water soluble and cannot be absorbed as such bile helps to emulsify the fats in the chyme and leads to the formation of micelles. Which are easy to digest and absorb the pancreas. Which lies behind the stomach has both an exocrine as well as an endocrine part. The endocrine portion produces insulin and glucagon click on the card above to learn more about the endocrine system.

The exocrine part. However secretes important digestive enzymes like the chymotrypsinogen and trypsinogen also amylase and lipase chymotrypsinogen is converted into chymotrypsin and trypsinogen is converted into trypsin. Which are the active form of these enzymes and these enzymes digest proteins. Amylase.

Digests carbohydrates. Whereas. Lipase digests fats now approximately. 1r after you take a meal.

The food starts to enter the duodenum where all these enzymes and bile start their action. The food then passes slowly from duodenum to jejunum and then to ilium. Most of the digestion of food takes place in the small intestine. The wall of the small intestine contains layers of smooth muscles.

Which cause segmental contractions that move the food forward slowly the carbohydrates fats and proteins and other nutrients are completely. Digested slowly over a period of many ars now if we talk about proteins. These proteins are converted into peptides and simple amino acids by the action of many enzymes from the stomach and small intestine. The main enzyme which act on proteins are the chymotrypsin and trypsin.

Which are pancreatic enzymes. The fat in our diet is converted into simple molecules like fatty acids and glycerol from the enzymes from pancreas and liver. The pancreatic enzyme lipase is the main fat digesting enzyme. Whereas the bile from the liver helps to digest the fats.

The main enzymes that digest carbohydrates are amylase from the pancreas. Which convert complex carbohydrates into simple ones. And also enzymes from the small intestinal wall. Which are known as brush border enzymes these enzymes include extra neighs glucoamylase maltese sucrase and lactase so all of these complex food is broken down into simple molecules.

Which are easy to absorb now if you look at the microscopic structure of the wall or small intestine you can see that it consists of small projections on the surface. Which are known as villi these villi in turn have more smaller projections on their surface. Which are known as micro villi..

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The presence of villi and microvilli on the surface of small indesign increases. The surface area of the small indesign tremendously. Which makes it super effective to absorb these digested simple food materials. These molecules cross the cells of these micro villi and are then taken up into the bloodstream and lymphatics in the vessels present in the center of these villi so after most of the digested and absorbed in the small intestine.

The rest of the food passes into the large intestine. The large and stein begins with the cecum which marks a distinction between the small and the large colon. The large intestine is divided into ascending transverse and descending colon the descending colon. Then leads into the sigmoid colon.

Which then leads into the rectum and that finally leads into the annal canal. Overall the length of large in stein is about 15. Meters. Which is about one fifth the length of whole gi tract.

The large intestine. Absorbs water and any remaining and probable nutrients from the food. Before sending the indigestible matter to the rectum. The large intestine contains over 700 species of bacteria that perform various important functions in digestion and can you believe the bacteria in our large gut is about 200 grams in weight in the large intestine.

The microbes act on the remaining food and produce important compounds like propionate. Butyrate etc. These compounds are used by the large intestine cells for their nourishment. Important vitamins.

Like vitamin k are also produced after this the remaining material turns almost solid. Which is compacted in stools and stored in the rectum till. It s excreted through the anus. So this was a brief review of the human digestive system.

Now coming back to the question. We asked in the beginning that was if you remove more than half of your liver. How much time will it take to regenerate it completely and the answer to this question is four to six months yes in about six months you will have a brand new liver guys thank you so much for watching this video. If you want to see more videos like this subscribe to our youtube channel and for all the flash cards and upcoming notifications follow us on facebook in the link in the description below.

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