What is an SSD? – Newegg TV

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“Everybody and welcome to newegg tv. My name is steve and today. I m gonna gonna talk to you about ssds alright. So for those of you out there whon t know what an ssd is it s essentially a flash drive in the size and shape of a hard drive 25.

Inch is a typical size that you would see for one of these drives. But let s go a little bit deeper than that let s talk a little bit about the difference between an ssd and a hard drive. So. There s an ssd stands for solid state drive an hd d stands for hard disk drive now hd ds or hard disks drives.

Our mechanical drives that have moving parts. They have spinning platters and read write arms that limit their overall performance. Ssds. Have no moving parts and instead.

They use extremely fast. Nand flash memory to store. Data so ssd. Manufacturers just the name of.

Few we have im. Flash technologies. Which is a conglomerate of intel and mike micron as well as samsung. Sk hynix.

Toshiba and sandisk those two are both together as well now there are several reasons. Why you might want to upgrade to an ssd or upgrade your current ssd. One of those reasons might be to load windows faster with an ssd windows 8 and a motherboard with ufi bios you can experience extremely low load times around 8 seconds. Games and programs will also load a lot faster speaking of performance performance is typically measured by sequential read and write speeds listed in megabytes per second and random read and write speeds in input output operations per second or ai.

Ops. These are the four extreme corners of performance in real world scenario. You ll be doing a combination of all of these. Things.

Sequential. Benchmark. Results are typically indicative of large file transfers or say. When you install a program on your operating system.

Random. Read. And write benchmarks deal with small file sizes around four kilobytes. Which is a better representation of day to day computing tasks.

Now it s a good idea to research the performance of a drive before purchasing it we have benchmark results here on our channel. But you can typically read these results right off the retail box on reviewer sites. The manufacturers site or on new aig s product pages. So let s talk a little bit about this speed at which hard drives currently transfer data.

So a wd black. 4. Terabyte desktop. Hard drive has sequential.

Read. And write speeds of 180 megabytes per second on the reads. And 170 nine megabytes per second on the writes for 4k random. Read and write speeds.

We re looking at 400. I ups on the reads and 320. I ops on the writes now if i were to speak to you in terms of just those numbers you can compare the numbers being larger or not and that s specifically what s going to tell you whether or not they re faster. So an ssd for instance.

Let s take the samsung 850 pro. 8 128 gigabyte ssd for instance. It has sequential read and write speeds of 561 megabytes per second and 479 megabytes per second clearly much faster than the hard drive now looking at the fork a random read and write. Speeds we have reads of 97000.

I ops and writes at 88 thousand. I ops clearly the ssd is much faster than the hard drive alright so performance is one thing. Let s talk a little bit about the ssds anatomy. So we have interface and protocol and those are two important things i want to make a quick distinction on sata is an interface standard as well as a protocol and you guys are probably familiar with that because most of the drives you re currently using at home are probably sata 3 or possibly sata 2.

So there s three different revisions of sata. We have revision 1 2. 3..

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And maximum theoretical throughput is kind of the way we can distinguish between the three of them. And that is the speed at which data can transfer through it at a maximum. Point so. Revision.

1 is 15. Gigabits per second revision. 2. Is 3 gigabits per second and sata revision.

3. Runs. At 6 gigabits per second. Now.

Another interface is the m. Sata interface. And this this also used as a protocol for data transfer. It uses.

The sata protocol for data transfer excuse me. But it also has a different maximum throughput and by that i mean it would depend on the drive that you re currently using because the controller is actually installed on the m sata drive itself now it could be a one two or three revision controller on that particular drive and what that means is basically is going to use sata revision 1. Sata revision 2 or 3 with the exact same limitations on speed so that s one point five three and six gigabits per second. Now you could also have the to interface.

Which is something you guys have probably heard of so far being that intel has recently released the z97 chipset. What actually which actually added that so m dot 2. Has sata or pcie protocol. Now sata uses the exact same throughput as i mentioned before the flipside of that is that pcie actually uses a slightly different type of protocol and what that basically means is that it s going to be dependent on the number and the generation of pcie lanes that are wired for transferring data.

So for example pcie generation. 2. Would have a maximum theoretical bandwidth of 4 gigabits per second per. Pcie.

Lane and then a pcie. Gen3 would have a max theoretical bandwidth of 787. 7. Gigabits per second per pcie lane put that in perspective.

If you have an x 2. Or by to gen 3. Drive. That s going to be able to put out around 16 gigabits per second.

Now pci express. Also depends on the number and generation of pcie lanes. And it s also going to be dependent on what. It s wired for so.

Pcie. Gen. 2. Would have a max theoretical bandwidth of 4 gigabits.

Per second per. Pcie lane. Just the same as before pcie gen3 would have seven point eight seven seven gigabits per second per pcie lane as a maximum throughput now sata express is brand new and you ve probably heard about that as well also in some of the z97 chipset boards. It has a maximum throughput of sixteen gigabits per second also ssds have been manufactured to use some unorthodox interface types like usb thunderbolt and wireless here s a look at what an ssd looks like on the inside of its chassis.

Now we have a pcb. Which is the entire green area. There that is the printed circuit board and essentially it s the wiring that allows connectivity to the other different components inside the ssd now. We also have the controller that s a really important part of an any ssd.

The controller is the integrated circuit. That s responsible for communication of data to and from the flash modules on the ssd to the pc. The management of that data. We re leveling bad block management error correcting code garbage collection on the fly compression and fault tolerance.

Now let me define a couple of those terms for you we re leveling is the process. The controller goes through by ensuring that all blocks are written too evenly this way the drives nand wears out evenly now a garbage collection is another important term to define when a block is marked as erasable. It s not immediately erased garbage collection is the process of erasing those blocks and preparing them to be written to once again it improves. The write performance of the drive and this is what happens when windows initiates the trim command to the ssd now aside from the speed of the interface and the speed of the flash memory.

The controller is a major factor in the performance on an ssd now let me just name a couple of ssd controller manufacturers just so you guys are familiar with some names sandforce samsung marvell jai micron and sk hynix which actually recently bought link a media as well as in the links. Now. There are some ssds that actually are designed with dram memory for readwrite caching..

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And as you can see in this image. Here s an example of one of them let s talk a little bit about the nand manufacturing process they have 25 24 21. And 20 nanometer process. That s fairly common right now with new developments reaching the 19 16 15.

And 12 nanometer manufacturing process and all that is is just how thin they re getting their wafers in order to compact more and more nand into the same sized chip resulting in much larger capacity ssd. It s very similar to the way that cpus are slowly condensed much much smaller with their nanometer manufacturing process so moving along 3d man is fairly new and you ve probably heard about it samsung currently manufactures them in 42 nanometer process and generational in progress is instead measured in layers. As opposed to that thickness the initial vertical nand started at 24 layers. We re currently at 32 layers and they re heading all the way up to 48 layer stacks by 2016.

So we re gonna talk a little bit about some more technical sides of nand flash and this is going to bring in probably. Some stuff you guys may or may not understand or maybe some things you have or haven t already heard about it ready and specifically we re going to talk about right. Now the synchronous versus asynchronous nand. Now think of these as timekeeping methods.

That controllers use to keep the rate of instructions executed in they are separated into two regulatory signals. The read event signal and the right event signal as nand and proved it gamed double data rate just like ddr did and with memory. There was a need to develop a new regulatory signal and they called that the strobe. It helps the controller cope with high speed reads and writes now a synchronous device runs its clock for as long.

As the device has power just like a clock would an asynchronous device runs its clock. When the host sends the signal for a read or write event. More like a stopwatch now moving forward. Let s talk a little bit about on fire.

Oh nfi and toggle. And these are both flash memory standards. Oh nfi stands for open nand flash interface. Oh nfi has several versions or standards now to my knowledge all manufacturers make own affine and accept toshiba and samsung.

The unfi standard has alternated between synchronous and asynchronous methods and retains backwards compatibility now each of the ona. 5 versions. Essentially differentiates themselves by a max interface speed. Now here are a few of the maximum speeds that they have achieved starting with version 10 it was starting at 50 megabytes per second as it improved up to 21.

They reached 200 megabytes per second. They also added some low level nand. Management tasks like ecc and bad block tracking as they move forward to 32. It reached 533 megabytes per second up to 4.

And then they hit 800 megabytes per second. Also they lowered power consumption. In version. 4.

You can head on over to onf. 5 org for more information on. That. Standard now toggle.

10 and 20. Other two different versions currently available toshiba and samsung make toggle nand toggle man has always been asynchronous the toggle ddr 10. Specification added a ddr or double data rate interface to the conventional single data rate nand architecture this advanced has resulted in a 133 megabit per second. Interface according to.

Samsung toggle 20. Nan has the benefit of reduced complexity and enjoys an increased flexibility in designing smaller chip sizes that brings products to. Market. Faster toggle 20.

Nan has a maximum of 400 megabit per second for the interface alright so let s talk a little bit about the way that bits or information is stored on nand. And that is called bit storage technology now one way of looking at data stored in nand flash is to imagine. It represented as small electrical charges being held in a series of tiny nand cells engineers have designed varying levels of storage in each cell each with their very own advantages and disadvantages adding more bits to cells makes it harder to tell. Which state a cell is in this combined with shrinking process geometry both reduce cell endurance as well as the performance and reliability with this reasoning slc is the fastest longest lasting bit technology for nand flash mlc is the second and tlc is the third so if the performance reduces.

Why even use mlc or tlc well that s because each increase in bits per cell. The capacity of the overall drive is increased at a fraction of the cost slc stands for a single level cell and that is one bit of data per cell pros. It s the fastest and longest lasting cons. It cost quite a bit more than mlc and tlc.

Also they are typically much smaller capacity drives than the other two ml c stands for multi level cell. That means that it s 2 bit mlc. And it also has two bits of data per cell pros more capacity and less costly than slc. It s the happy medium cons slower than slc and lower lifespan than slc now tlc stands for tri level cell.

It has its a 3 bit mlc and that means that it has 3 bits of data per cell. The pros it s the most inexpensive and most capacity per cell compared to the other two and it s still faster than a hard drive cons. It s the lowest lifespan of the 3 and samsung states..

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It can take up to four times as long to write and up to two and a half times as long to read. 3. Bit mlc nand than it does slc nand. Now let s talk about the new kid on the block.

3. Dv nant that stands for 3d vertical nand. Samsung. Pioneered this technology.

Which is essentially vertically stacked cell. Layers of nand. Samsung s first design was a 24 layer cell array structure of mlc 2. Bitnet.

The second generation utilizes. 32 layers pros a ton more capacity twice as fast as 2d planner land. And that is basically what standard nan is called because now we have 3d. They also have 10 times.

The cell endurance than slc memory and 46 percent less power consumption. Khan s pretty much only the price on smaller capacities might just be a little bit higher than normal. We can deal with that also we have another brand new version of 3d nan they re calling it 3 bit 3d v nan or tlc 3d vertical and mass production of 3 bit v nand flash started in october of this year. They utilize.

A 42 nanometer process. Technology with 3 bit multi level cell wafers stacked vertically. These new chips will likely have less performance and reliability than the original 3d beam end. But the capacity skyrockets who knows what the future holds.

We may see full replacements of hard drives with these super. Large nand packages. Now. Let s talk a little bit about durability program and erase cycles.

For instance. It s another important aspect of nand each block has a finite number of times. That it can be written to the controller keeps track of these program array cycles. So that it knows when a block is no longer usable a drives lifespan is determined by the amount of times.

The nan can be written to in program. Erase cycles. But instead of p e cycles. Most ssd manufacturers have moved to a new metric this can also be displayed as the number of gigabytes written per day over the course of the warranty over provisioning is the practice of allocating.

An additional amount of nand with the purpose of increasing ssd performance and endurance as the blocks go bad. New untouched blocks are pulled into use from the additional allocated nand in this section of video. We re going to move on to installations. And in front of you i have an msi gaming.

Laptop here you can see where the 25. Inch drive would go in and in this particular case. It s a standard hard drive. If you wanted to replace this you absolutely could make sure that you check out your warranty information to make sure that by opening the back of your laptop.

You re not actually voiding any warranty or if you aren t you don t care then please continue otherwise you re definitely going to want to make sure that you don t have any and any static on your on your body. So you want to make sure that you touch something like a ground that actually grounds you if you want to be extremely careful you can get an anti static strap. Which actually wraps around your wrist. And then attaches you with alligator clips onto something metal inside.

Make sure you are definitely touching something metal. Like this heat sink would probably be one option ideally in a case. You d actually have a ground so moving forward as long as you re you re completely out of any kind of anti static electricity or any kind of static electricity. We re gonna move forward into the drive.

So you d remove this by finding the two different screw holes of b here. Remove both of those and slide it out. I m actually not going to show you this because. This is fairly straightforward.

Although m. Sata drives might be a little bit more difficult alright and as you can see on this particular motherboard. We have two different m sata ports. That we could actually use and take a look at the users guide to know.

Which one you want to start with in this particular case. We re going to use this port here and the way you want to install them is by first well i have the drive here. But by first removing both of these screws and then sliding the drive in and it goes in slightly at a 45 degree angle here see if i can get it to line up i have to make sure that it lines up with the teeth down here at the bottom..

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So you can see there s a shorter area in a longer area in these teeth have to line up. So just like this see it kind of pops up a little bit. What you do is you press. It down.

And then apply both screws screwing them into each of their individual holes. And as you can see both screws are screwed in and this drive is essentially installed now if you re going to use this as an extra cash drive you can do so i would recommend probably installing it your windows operating system directly onto this it s going to improve performance alright. This is a z97 one the board specifically it s the azarov s e97 xtreme. 6.

And if we take a closer look here we have a xerox ultra m2 port. Which is basically an m2 port. But they wired it up to be pci gen3 by 4. Which basically means.

It s going to get 32 gigabit per second throughput. Which is insanely fast depending on your drive speed that will not be a bottleneck. Most likely so installing this mdot to drive is pretty much the exact same way we do the msata. It s going to slide in here at an angle.

I can get it in there actually not at an angle. A slider angle than before so. It s got a little bit of a pop up here and then making sure that this is lined up exactly where your drive needs to be otherwise you re going to need to unscrew that thumb screw and move it exactly where it should be then you just take one of the screws that comes inside the box and screw it in right. There.

Now the sata express connector would actually be plugged in here with these three plugs. Actually making up one port plugs in directly. There. And then one into the other side.

Where the drive is unfortunately. I don t have a sata express drive to show you but essentially it works the exact same way as installing a sata drive alright and now we are looking at the gigabyte g1. Sniper a atx motherboard. This is of course.

An fm 2 plus board. It has the pci express slot that we re going to need for this installation as well as sata ports. So here is the amd radeon ssd that i have in front of you now of course you can take this and use the adapter here. If your case doesn t actually have any room or any slots.

That you can use for two and a half inch drives. But this two and a half to three and a half inch adapter will actually allow you to plug it in or install it into one of the three and half inch drive bays and there in your system. Now the set of connector and interface is here on this edge. And you can see it s two different l.

Connectors. Then wanted right here is for data that goes to the motherboard. The one on the left. Here is going to the power supply and providing power for the drive.

So we ll start first with this sata connector. So we re to go ahead and pop this in for you i ll show you how that goes in i want to push in nice and firmly. But not too hard because you can break that that clip right off now here is the other connector that s for power. I m going to go ahead and slide that in as well now i like to use these adapters.

Because essentially i can use a single cable straight for my power supply to go in for pin molex. So i can just use that for powering everything. But you could also use just the standard sata connectors that are already there in your power supply as well so you re going to need to plug this into your power supply to give it power and on the other end you re going to need to take this and plug it into the motherboard. So you ll do that by taking the l.

Connector taking a look at it making sure it matches up with the one here and plugging it direct in to the board. All right now finally we have the pci express card style ssd interface installation and for this we re going to use the asus raider express for that now there s obviously some plenty of different options out there. But this is pretty simple on how to install it just make sure that you know exactly what the pcie lanes. They re actually going to be in use and make sure that you don t pick one that doesn t work for instance.

You don t want to put this in a pcie x16. Only a by 2. So i go ahead and slide. It in that s pretty much it put the screw inside.

Where your chassis is and it s installed. We ll all right everybody thank you so much for watching this video on ssds here on new egg tv. If you like what you saw today don t forget we also have a youtube channel that s at youtube dot com. Forward slash new egg and until then ” .

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