oxygen therapy is prescribed for a patient who is brought to an emergency This is a topic that many people are looking for. star-trek-voyager.net is a channel providing useful information about learning, life, digital marketing and online courses …. it will help you have an overview and solid multi-faceted knowledge . Today, star-trek-voyager.net would like to introduce to you Oxygen Therapy and Delivery – How to Prescribe Oxygen. Following along are instructions in the video below:
Video will demonstrate the safe administration of oxygen therapy. It will cover when and how how to use different oxygen delivery devices as well as how to prescribe oxygen for patient the treatment options include nasal canula simple face masks and torrie masks and reservoir bag masks as with any procedure introduce yourself correctly identify your patient explain what youre going to do and gain consent if a patient is showing signs of respiratory distress. We can check how well they are oxygenated blood using a device called a pulse oximeter.
This is a non invasive way of measuring the spo2. Which is the oxygen saturation of arterial blood. The device is placed on the nail bed of the finger.
The probe. Should be fitted securely and any nail polish must be removed as it can interfere with the reading. The monitor will then display the spo2 as a percentage spo2 in healthy individuals should be between 94 and a hundred percent.
If a patients s. Po2 is below this level. This would indicate that they are hypoxic and need to be given oxygen for most patients.
When delivering oxygen therapy. We aim for a target saturation of between 94 and 98. Percent.
However if a patient is thought to be at risk of type. 2.
Respiratory failure for example those with copd. We aim for a lower target saturation or between 88 and 92 percent whilst awaiting the results of arterial blood gas or abg the oxygen delivery device and flow rate of oxygen can be changed to keep the spo2 within this target range. We are going to begin by administering oxygen through nasal cannula.
This is recommended as being suitable for most patients. With both type 1 and to respiratory failure. This is a hollow tube with two prongs.
Which insert into the nostrils. It can then be secured in place by taping it behind the ears. The other end of the tube is connected to some oxygen tubing.
Which then attaches to the oxygen cylinder. Normally on award. The chiefing can be attached to an oxygen tap on the wall.
You can control the flow rate of oxygen going through the device using a flow meter. The design of these may vary between hospitals. But in general the center of the ball or marker.
Will tell you the flow rate in liters per minute nasal. Cannula can deliver flow rates of between 2 and 6 liters per minute.
But what we are really interested in is the fio2 the fraction of oxygen inspired by the patient for nasal cannula. 2. To 6 liters per minute equates to an fio2 of between 24 and 50 percent advantages of nasal cannula are that they are comfortable and easily tolerated.
Often being preferred by patients compared to simple masks as it can eat and speak easily they are not rebreathing their own exhaled air and the device is cheap. However they can be easily dislodged and the effectiveness is dependent on the pattern of breathing since patients can still breathe through air through their mouth altering their fio2. An alternative to nasal cannula is to use a simple face mask.
This is less comfortable for the patient. But can deliver slightly higher concentrations of oxygen. The oxygen tubing is connected to the plastic port at the bottom of the mask.
The open side ports allow air to mix and dilute the oxygen as well as allowing carbon dioxide to leave the mask can then be molded to fit over the patients nose and mouth. And a secured by an elastic band at the back. The flow rate.
Should be adjusted to between 5. And 10. Liters per minute and can be adjusted depending on the target saturations.
However. It is difficult to know exactly how much oxygen is being delivered through a simple face mask if a specific concentration of oxygen is to be delivered or the patient continues to deteriorate a venturi mask can be used these has special adapters.
Which vary the diameter of flow in order to achieve a specific fio2. They range from 24 and 60 sent the adapters our different colors and display. The required flow rate as well as the estimated fio2.
The oxygen is connected up in a similar way to the simple face mask and the mask is then adjusted to fit on the patients face. Then tory masks are used in situations. Where patients may have copd or other risk factors for type ii.
Respiratory failure and high concentrations of oxygen may need to be avoided. Aim for oxygen saturations are between 88 and 92. Percent.
A 28 percent. Venturi mask. At 4 liters per minute can be used.
While some abg is obtained if the patient continues to deteriorate or has arrived in a critical condition. A non rebreather mask is used to deliver high concentrations of oxygen to the patient. This has an attached reservoir bag and one way valves.
Which allow oxygen concentrations of 60 to 80 to be achieved. Once again.
The oxygen is connected up and the flow rate is adjusted to between 12 and 15 liters per minute the valve between the facemask and reservoir bag. Nice repressed in order to fill the bag up it can then be adjusted to fit over the patients nose and mouth similar to the previous face masks. If a patient needs high oxygen concentrations this reflects a serious underlying illness and is important to continuously monitor the patient obtain.
An abg and seek senior medical input. This slide summarizes how to approach the management of a patient in respiratory distress. Lastly oxygen is a drug and may be harmful.
It must be prescribed in emergency situations. It can be written up afterwards looking at a drug chart you need to write up the drug name the target saturation. The flow rate.
The indication and device used for the key points to remember patients on oxygen. Require. Regular review titrate.
The oxygen up or down to maintain the target oxygen saturations. If the patient remains stable on minimal oxygen therapy. Consider discontinuation.
If youd like more information. Please see the bts guidelines. .
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