Categories of mental disorders | Behavior | MCAT | Khan Academy

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In this video i want to talk briefly about the different types of mental disorders. Disorders. There is an enormous number of mental disorders.
Many of which may have overlapping for most categories of mental disorders. There is usually a stipulation that the mental abnormalities are not due to the use of medications substances. Or another medical condition in which case.
The mental abnormalities are considered to be symptoms of that underlying cause rather than a mental disorder in and of itself. Also because features of mental disorders. Often overlap with mental and behavioral aspects of some people considered to be within the bounds of what is normal for a persons culture.
Another general consideration is that the mental abnormalities cause distress or disability distress or disability distress or disability. This is a key point because that means that a person thats just unusual or eccentric. Does not have a mental illness.
So that a person thats a little weird is not mentally ill. So to give a very superficial overview of the types of mental disorders. Ill go through some of the top level categories and recall that there are two main systems in use currently to categorize the mental disorders.
There is the icd 10 from the world health organiazation and then theres the dsm. 5. From the american psychiatric association.
Ill go through the categories of the dsm. 5. Just because im a little bit more familiar with that system.
But there would be a lot of similarities between the two systems the dsm. 5. Has 20 top level categories.
Ill start with the neurodevelopmental disorders. These disorders involve distress or disability from an abnormality in development of the nervous system that causes mental dysfunction. Let me just draw.
A little baby here. Let me just draw this little guy. And well put some diapers on him to represent a developing nervous system and particularly a developing brain.
Theres all sorts of things that can happen to the brain during its development that can lead to abnormal mental function. Some of the disorders in this category of neurodevelopmental disorders. Include intellectual disability.
Which was previously called mental retardation the autism spectrum disorders are in this category and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders are in this category like all the other categories of mental disorders. There is also a group within the neurodevelopmental disorders called other neurodevelopmental disorders for any that dont fit. All.
The criteria of one of the specific disorders in this category. But when this category is the best fit for the disorder. So i wont mention that again.
But just keep in mind that every one of these big categories has an other category at the end of it the next big category is called the neurocognitive disorders. Which involve distress or disability from the loss of cognitive and often other functions of the brain after the nervous system has developed let me just draw a little old person walking along walking with a cane and the distinction here between these neurocognitive disorders. And the neurodevelopmental disorders.
Is that with the neurocognitive disorder. The nervous system developed and then lost functions as opposed to the neurodevelopmental disorders. Where usually the function was never gained in the first place because the abnormality of the nervous system happens during development.
There are a couple of big categories of disorders within the neurocognitive disorders. One is called delirium and delirium is the name for a reversible episode of abnormalities of cognitive and other higher brain functions from many potential causes such as certain drugs abnormalities of certain components of the blood or certain types of infections major neurocognitive disorder. Which is also called dementia and its milder versions usually involve irreversible and often progressive loss of cognitive and other higher brain functions from many potential causes such as alzheimers disease or stroke.
The sleep. Wake disorders. Involve distress or disability from abnormalities related to sleep.
So let me just draw this person over here whos got their eyes closed and theyre very sleepy. Well just say they are sleeping. So here theyre snoring away.
And this will represent our sleep. Wake disorders disorders. In this category.
Include insomnia and breathing related sleep disorders. That involve insufficient amounts of uninterrupted sleep. And there are other disorders in this category.
That cause abnormal sleepiness. When awake additional disorders in this category involve abnormal behaviors.

medication for psychological disorders is generally prescribed by _____, who have _____ degrees.-0
medication for psychological disorders is generally prescribed by _____, who have _____ degrees.-0

During sleep such as sleep walking the anxiety disorders. Involve distress or disability from abnormal amounts of worry or fear. So for these let me just draw a little kind of worried person over here.
Just looking. Very worried about this whole situation. Some of the anxiety disorders are specific to certain stimuli.
Which are known as phobias like a lot of people have a phobia of spiders or snakes. While other disorders in this category are not specific to certain stimuli including a common one called generalized anxiety disorder panic disorder is in this category. Which involves panic attacks.
Which are episodes of intense anxiety that may cause people to be afraid to leave their homes the depressive disorders. Involve distress or disability from abnormally negative mood let me put a frowny face right here to represent abnormally negative mood. The term mood is used in several ways one way the term mood is used is to refer to a long term emotional state.
Which may be positive or negative. In this way. The word mood is related to emotions.
But emotions are thought of as usually brief experiences often related to specific stimuli like getting something you want. Whereas. Mood is more persistent and may or may not be related to specific events in a persons life.
The second way the term mood is used is as the subjective experience. A person has of their emotions. And another term affect is often used to describe how a persons emotional state.
Appears to others. So that mood may refer to what a person is saying. They feel like they may say they feel sad while affect may refer to the person crying in addition to negative mood.
The depressive disorders often involve related symptoms such as feelings of hopelessness or loss of enjoyment in activities. These disorders. Carry a particularly high risk of suicide which is a major cause of death in people with many types of mental illness bipolar and related disorders involve distress or disability from abnormal mood similar to the depressive disorders.
But the difference is that these disorders may have periods of abnormally positive mood which are called mania. So let me draw in addition to this frowny face here. Let me draw a very happy face.
And maybe a too happy face kind of a way too happy face for mania. During periods of mania. People will often sleep little talk fast and may make bad decisions from impaired judgment about the risks of activities or their own abilities.
And this can lead to all sorts of social or legal problems with this category of disorders schizophrenia spectrum and the other psychotic disorders is the next category. Which involves distress or disability from what is called psychosis so for that let me draw this person up here and well say up in their brain. They are hearing voices.
Which is a common symptom of some psychotic disorders psychosis involves certain features such as delusions or hallucinations delusions are fixed false beliefs not explainable by a persons cultural background. Such as having special powers or the idea that ones thoughts are controlled by somebody else hallucinations involve sensory perceptions without real stimuli such as hearing voices that are not there with psychosis disorganized thinking may occur as well as what are called negative symptoms. Which may involve decreased emotional expression.
Motivation or social behavior. Schizophrenia may have any of these features and the other disorders in this category. Usually have some of them the trauma and stressor related disorders involve distress or disability that may occur after mentally traumatic or stressful events leading to mood emotional behavioral and other abnormalities post traumatic stress disorder is the prototype disorder in this category.
Which has had many previous names because it has been common after wars throughout history let me just draw a soldier here carrying his gun to represent somebody who may have post traumatic stress disorder. Ill give him a helmet too but this can occur after many different types of stressors in addition to war or combat. These disorders are common after all kinds of traumatic experiences such as rape assault and natural disasters substance related and addictive disorders.
Involve distress or disability from the abnormal use of substances that affect mental functions let me just draw a glass of some kind of alcohol here to represent the different substances that can be related to this category. But there are a lot of substances that can affect mental functions and cause a substance related disorder. These include alcohol.
Caffeine cannabis. Hallucinogens inhalants opioids sedatives hypnotics anxiolytics. Stimulants and tobacco amongst.
Others the mental affects of these substances may cause mental abnormalities similar to the other types of mental disorders. Including mood abnormalities anxiety symptoms or psychosis other addictions like gambling are also included in this category because they share many aspects of addiction to substances. The personality disorders involve distress or disability related to personality personality involves long term mental and behavioral features that are characteristic of a person.
There is a huge spectrum of personality types that are generally considered acceptable by a persons culture personality disorders. Involve personality features that are outside generally accepted societal norms and which cause distress or disability. These have traditionally been grouped into clusters cluster.
A often has odd or eccentric behavior cluster b. Often involves intense emotional and relationship problems. Let me just draw this very intense person over here to represent somebody in cluster b.
And cluster. C.

medication for psychological disorders is generally prescribed by _____, who have _____ degrees.-1
medication for psychological disorders is generally prescribed by _____, who have _____ degrees.-1

Is often anxious avoidant or obsessive disruptive impulse control and conduct disorders. Involve distress or disability from behaviors that are unacceptably disruptive or impulsive for a persons culture. Let me just draw this person over here shouting very loudly in an inappropriate setting obsessive compulsive and related disorders.
Involve distress or disability from obsessions or compulsions obsessions are thoughts that recur involuntarily and which are often unwelcome. Compulsions are activities that a person feels they must do and which are often related to an obsession. A common example is someone having an obsession that their hands are dirty and then a compulsion to wash their hands.
Many more times a day than would be normal somatic symptom and related disorders. Involve distress or disability from symptoms similar to those that may occur with illness unrelated to a mental disorder. But the symptoms are of psychological origin with or without also having symptoms of a general medical condition at the same time.
An example of this could be someone that has abdominal pain so theyre saying ow my abdomen hurts. But theres actually not anything physically wrong with the abdomen. The tissues of the abdomen are just fine.
And its really caused by psychological factors like stress feeding and eating disorders. Involve distress or disability from mental or behavioral abnormalities related to food disorders in this category. Include anorexia nervosa where a person takes in an insufficient amount of food.
So well say this person is turning down a perfectly nice slice of pizza even though theyre actually way below their healthy body weight and another common disorder. In this category is bulimia nervosa. Which involves binge.
Eating and purging. The elimination disorders. Involve distress or disability from urination or defecation at inappropriate times or places.
Ill just draw this person over here. Who has had a urinary accident and theyre trying to cover it up the dissociative disorders. Involve distress or disability from abnormalities of identity or memory.
So let me just draw this person over here. Asking who am i some of the people with these disorders seem to have multiple personalities or may have lost memory for parts of their lives. The sexual dysfunctions involve distress or disability from abnormalities and or performance of sexual activity.
So ill just write r rated over here gender dysphoria involves distress or disability caused by a person identifying themself as a different gender than that identified by society. So as an example let me just draw a person here who society identifies as being male and ill just represent that with pants. But they themselves feel that they are female and ill just represent that with a skirt this category.
Requires an important distinction to be made if people experience distress or disability regarding gender identity the distress and disability constitutes the disorder. A person identifying with another gender without distress or disability. Does not have a mental disorder previously there was much stigmatization surrounding this issue and older categorization systems.
That did consider identification with another gender as a mental disorder in and of itself. The paraphilic disorders. Involve people that have distress or disability related to having sexual arousal to unusual stimuli or what would be considered unusual for that persons culture.
So. Ill also just point this over to the r rating. Over.
Here. So now similarly to gender dysphoria. People.
That have sexual arousal to unusual stimuli. Do not have a mental disorder. Unless it causes distress or disability.
Or for this category. Activities related to it could cause harm to another particularly children or other people. Without sufficient decision making capacity for proper consent.
The last category is just called other disorders. Im just going to draw a big question mark here for this one the entire purpose of this category is for any person that appears to have a mental disorder. Causing distress or disability.
But one that doesnt fit well in any of these other categories of mental disorder. The vast majority of people with a mental disorder will fit in one of these big categories of mental disorders. But very rarely a person just wont fit.
But does clearly have a mental disorder. And thats what this other disorders category. Is for so.
Thats all i have time for now. And obviously. Theres a lot more information with all the specific disorders.
That are contained within these top level categories of the dsm. 5. But to keep this video to a reasonable length.
Im just going to stop right here .

medication for psychological disorders is generally prescribed by _____, who have _____ degrees.-2
medication for psychological disorders is generally prescribed by _____, who have _____ degrees.-2

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