Why People Believe Covid-19 Conspiracies

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That the sheep are gone. If you havent seen planned emic. I think this this was all planned by the democratic party.
Do you believe the numbers in the this being reported by the mainstream news media. Youve been brainwashed you cannot escape god not even with the mask or six feet. Hes blowing the lid off the covetous scandal.
The scam demmick theres not enough to make this a pandemic. This is a planned dumbing youtube face. I mean all these different companies do not like what youre saying covet.
19. Has taken over our lives. But it hasnt been around for very long scientists have been studying it in real time as the world collectively goes through a traumatic world changing event.
What we do know is about obviously we know its a corona virus. We know that its a strain that partly came from a bat. But its mixed with something else and we havent nailed down exactly what that animal is so on the face of it thats not very reassuring.
Its killed more than half a million people. But we dont even know exactly where it came from as a result conspiracy theories have spread right alongside the virus and for companies. Like google.
Facebook and twitter. Long standing questions about how they should handle misinformation on their platforms. Have never been more relevant music.
Thousands of years ago. People thought epilepsy was a magical divinely given disease. But around 400 bce.
The greek physician hippocrates or one of his contemporaries wrote that epilepsy has a natural cause. And its supposed divine origin is due to mens inexperience and to their wonder at its peculiar character men continue to believe in its divine origin. Because they are at a loss to understand it and 2600 years later we are still dealing with that kind of thinking the advantage of things most things they dont have to be true and so you can make them nice.
Easy pet stories that are really comforting to believe. And thats what makes it really difficult to fight back against because youre trying to argue against a really simple easy to understand story that fits your beliefs verses this much more complicated story that isnt going to give you an easy answer in places like brazil. Venezuela and the us well.
There are some leaders promoting a science based approach. Many politicians and people in power are actively promoting misinformation. We have a totally under control.
Its one person coming in from china. The cycle that were doing is not stopping anything. Its not preventing the spread locking down doesnt work heres my evidence i get a lot of positive calls about it in a recent study thats now in preprint.
Cornell professor of government. Sarah crepes examined how americans are handling kovat 19 misinformation. We found that americans are really bad at correctly.
Identifying fake news as fake the more you rely on social media for your news. The more likely you are to be prone to this dynamic. Where youre not only failing to identify fake news as fake.
But the factual information as true misinformation has been around forever. But the internet and social media. Have made it much harder to counter what the internet allows it do is spread really far really fast and hit a lot of people by the time.
Anyone realizes that its false and has started to debunk. It its already spread to maybe millions of people there is a scientific process for all of our content. This takes a long time especially with the new virus in that time anyone can create a video and put it on youtube.
It takes five minutes. One study done in march showed that over a quarter of the most viewed youtube videos uncovered. 19 contained misleading information.
In general what we found in a bunch of studies is that most of the people who believe false news stories. Do so because theyre just not thinking deeply about whether what theyre reading is true or false healthy people arent dying. Were just getting over it like the flu do you see this like the food.
I see it like the flu thats exactly what it is is a different type of flu. So what are you saying to the scientists and those who encourage you to keep a path and wear a mask. Theres fear mongers because they dont know its a situation where those with opposing views can be baffled by the other sides inability to see what theyre seeing.
Theres a tendency for us to think that the people who fall for misinformation are other than us. But and if were smarter than everyone else we wouldnt believe anything thats demonstratively false and we find that thats just not the case all of us sometimes fall for misinformation every bit of information you absorb is filtered through your worldview and your cultural values. We are fundamentally fallible easily fooled.
Humans and positions on especially important things like evolution or vaccinations or kovat. 19. Can become not just evaluations of truth.
But part of your identity. It may be the case that at first people have no particular allegiance to any given understanding of whats going on its all so new and so fluid. But over time.
There will be a kind of convergence and the worry is that those beliefs. Sometimes inaccurate. Ones or even dangerous ones become linked to peoples worlds.
Use or belief systems. Thats the kind of thing that were seeing on debates. Like climate change or nuclear power.
Or the hpv vaccine positions on those issues. Have essentially become symbols of peoples membership in and loyalty to groups and the stake that people have ominous and theyre standing in the group is a very strong one and in those conditions people tend to use their reason to extract from information. The parts of it that help them to reinforce the beliefs that are held within their group in sarah.

a firm owned by a single person who shares profits and losses with no one else is a __________.-0
a firm owned by a single person who shares profits and losses with no one else is a __________.-0

Cr. Pes. Recent.
Cornell study. Democrats were consistently more likely to correctly identify a kovat related headline as true or false than were independents or republicans. But that doesnt mean democrats are smarter than independents or republicans on average republicans and democrats hold similar levels of science knowledge.
But it could suggest that the worldviews of republicans and independents are more closely aligned with this specific kind of misinformation and as a result are more likely to accept it as true in the mid 90s. There was no relationship between which part are you identified within your beliefs about the reality of climate change. Now thats a very high stakes issue.
Its so closely linked to partisanship and ideology. That its very hard to unwind that relationship and right now things are getting worse in april. 47.
Of republicans believed that the corona virus had been made a bigger deal than it really is by june that had grown to 63 among democrats it went from 14 to 18 percent first facebook and twitter have been widely criticized for years for allowing house misinformation to flourish. Theyve stressed for a long time that they dont want to be media. Companies they dont want to be in the business of editorial.
They dont want to be arbiters of the truth and so now theyre being forced to kind of look internally. And say what kind of measures are we willing to take in 2019. A pew research center survey showed that 55 percent of us adults.
Get news from social media. Often or sometimes facebook was the most popular source followed by youtube and then twitter since kovat all three have launched information portals with up to date information about the virus. And if you search google for a kovat related term youd get information from places like the centers for disease control.
And the world health organization. Above the actual search results. Andy patterson helped make this happen when you at the beginning of the outbreak was searching for corona virus.
With hope in nineteen thirty or forty different search terms. You would come up with everything that was on the internet. That had been published with regards to that whether it was true or false.
So. One of my first calls was to start the w h. O.
Offered to provide accurate covered. 19. Information to google that the company could then deploy as necessary and now what youll get is when you do go to googlecom.
And do a search for coronavirus or the 30 related terms you will get what we call a knowledge panel youtube also worked with the whl they are able to give us insights into the highest rising trends of content around kovat. So they could look at conspiracy theories and say hey watch out theres a conspiracy theory brewing at the moment about this so we can debunk that myth this is the kind of stepping up that i hope to see in other companies the response. Weve had from youtube has been fantastic facebook and twitter have similar information panels in place if you search for a covert conspiracy theory you get a panel or links to accurate information from places.
Like the cdc or w. H. O.
Beyond. That heres what facebook and twitter are doing anything that gets posted is reviewed by humans and algorithms and problematic posts get sorted into categories. Some things get removed for facebook those are things that pose a risk of leading to imminent physical danger for twitter.
Its severe statements or assertions that have been confirmed to be false or misleading by subject matter experts some things dont get removed. But instead theyre labeled or their distribution is reduced for facebook. This includes claims that dont result in direct physical harm.
But have still been deemed false so a conspiracy theory about the origin of the virus might not get removed. But it would get labeled as misinformation and anyone who previously shared it would get notified and shown links to covered myths debunked by the whl with facebook by giving them content. Which was saying.
This is definitely true this is definitely this is definitely false. We became the judge and they were able to remove content. Very quickly this was very important for us because a lot of the myths and falsehoods.
Which are on the internet actually could cause harm. A perfect example of that was that in the middle east. There was a rumor going around that high grade alcohol.
Would kill the virus and nearly 800 people died in iran from ingesting high percent alcohol. So its really important that this immediately. But one problem is that what kind of post falls into each category isnt always clear they say that they have these policies that theyll enforce.
But you know these are policies that are pretty frequently broken. You know some would say by the president himself and so when exactly facebook enforces. It it seems like its kind of a moving line twitter.
Mostly focuses on labeling things. Moderate statements or assertions that have been confirmed to be false or misleading by subject matter experts or disputed claims are labeled as such what the platforms seem to be doing is treating kovat 19. Misinformation as another category of speech that needs to be aggressively policed.
So its not in the bucket. With standard political fact checking where we wait for a fact check to emerge on this particular piece of content. Theyre policing it more aggressively to not just reduce the reach of that content in terms of how high it is in your newsfeed.
But whether its even on platform at all facebook says that during the month of march. It displayed warnings on about 40 million posts related to kovat 19. And that when people saw those warning labels 95 percent of the time they did not go on to view the original content.
The company also says that it has removed hundreds of thousands of pieces of misinformation that could lead to imminent physical harm like claims that drinking bleach cures the virus or theories that physical distancing is ineffective. But one area facebook has not done as much is in its groups so these tend to be more private groups. Where people are just sharing content with each other and oftentimes those sorts of conspiracy theories are coming up about the origin of the virus.
Facebook has done far less to combat misinformation in these groups for a while they got away with this. But now that facebook advertisers are starting to say that they dont want their content. Running alongside those types of content.

a firm owned by a single person who shares profits and losses with no one else is a __________.-1
a firm owned by a single person who shares profits and losses with no one else is a __________.-1

Now it seems like it is finally a problem for them. The recent facebook ad. Boycott began as a result of criticism of the companies handling of misinformation and hate speech.
And its no longer just an intellectual argument for these companies and their leadership. While most of the us was struggling with the contin quences of kovat 19 from march 16 to june 23 facebook. Ceo mark zuckerberg smet worth grew by almost 36 billion dollars.
But after the ad boycott facebook shares went down and he lost almost 10 billion dollars in four days. These are you know multi million budget advertisers that are taking their money and their business elsewhere and i would assume that some of that business is going to facebooks rivals so huge amounts of money are now involved and these companies are being forced to rethink how they handle misinformation. It wasnt too long ago that twitter was pretty much seen by anyone paying attention to social media.
As the free speech wing social networks and in very recent years. The thinking and the reputation that twitter had in comparison to facebook really flipped and this was something that facebook and in particular ceo mark zuckerberg. Really hopped on and they picked up that torch and started to proclaim that facebook was the free speech social network for twitter.
Its many fewer users means. The company has a much smaller pool of misinformation to sort through facebook has 17 3 billion daily active users twitter has 166 million so even if they bring you down lets say 99 of it theyre still leaving up. Lets say a million posts or theyre getting or people are exposed to a lot of misinformation.
Despite their best efforts. Twitter. Says that since introducing its new misinformation policies on march 18.
It has removed 14 thousand nine hundred tweets. Which means that for about every four million tweets posted. One tweet was removed the company says that it will not be able to label or take action on every tweet.
That contains misinformation and is prioritizing. The most harmful content. One example of the resulting.
Ambiguity is a tweet from president trumps former campaign manager. Brad parr scale he linked to an article about the benefits of hydroxychloroquine from the association of american physicians. And surgeons an organization that has in the past promoted debunked claims like the idea that hiv does not cause aids that the gay male lifestyle shortens life expectancy by 20 years and possible links between autism and vaccinations these things.
And his recent tweet are not factual. But twitter. Hasnt removed or labeled par scales tweet.
As misinformation and when asked about it the company said that its because wishes or hopes of cures do not increase peoples likelihood of coming in to harm. But directing people to act or do something that could harm them would at the same time twitter has been seen as recently having taken stronger action than facebook after its decision to label. Several of president trumps tweets when facebook did not but its clear that both companies are still struggling with misinformation while twitter has been trying to flag and label some of this information at times you know i think that theyve just been overwhelmed by it and they have not reacted quickly enough.
But there are reasons to be cautiously optimistic. Weve always been fighting misinformation around health and weve been working with the tech industry for a couple of years now to fight these things. But i think that the global pandemic has sort of created this awareness of how bad and terrible.
It can be because it impacts. Each and every one of us in the past it impacted other people now its impacting every one of us so we have to start thinking more maturely about this content and take it a lot more seriously. While there are certainly are examples of health misinformation.
You know related to cova. 19 circulating on the platforms their reach seems to be much more limited than we might have feared based on prior experience going into this so while we need to remain vigilant. I would actually say that im much more worried about mainstream media actors who are denying this very the crisis for far too long then i am social media.
Although theres certainly bad examples there too alongside all of this questions about free speech. And the first amendment are rightfully being discussed taking down. Whats clearly misinformation about kovat is in the service of public health and they do need to be engaged in and those kinds of content moderation behaviors.
What i think is potentially worrisome is if then that spills over into moderating on politics. I dont endorse this approach when it comes to all political spin. But when it comes to health misinformation that can endanger peoples lives that is not just normal political speech.
I think its appropriate to take up a more strict perspective. Its hard to convince someone that theyre wrong about something so. Its important to get accurate information out there in the first place.
We can play whack a mole all day with the various myths. Theyre out there. But we need to be reinforcing over and over again those important messages about washing your hands social distancing and all the other things that are gonna help us get through this evident.
And dont completely give up on trying to convince your friends and family to rethink harmful false beliefs. I want to open up our beaches. I think the beaches are safe interpersonal social context is a powerful one in which minds can be opened peoples beliefs can be changed.
We often give up on those notions. But i think we should especially now and in your social network. You can be a quite powerful voice and continuing to work to increase the scientific literacy and critical thinking skills of everyone is crucial.
Theres no one quick method of knowing. Whats real whats not real on social media or in the news. You know if somethings important enough for you to decide whether or not you believe it.
Then you should you need to invest a little bit of time basically anything you can do to get people to slow down. Actually read the article to think about whether what theyre sharing is true. Its gonna help a lot you just have to realize it if youre gonna guess and with a absence of reliable information.
Youre just stating your bias. We have to get out of this habit of just sharing because it sounds extraordinary we have to think about what are the sources of this information do i trust this source should i check the facts and who am i gonna check it with before i share so getting away from political and sports reporters who got thrown on this story. Getting away from this guy told.
Me this thing and getting closer. Even you know getting away from the tv doctors and getting closer to the real subject. Matter experts.
If you want to drill down. Those are the people you want to be learning from not some guy who put some post up on medium and tells you he knows whats going on you music. .

a firm owned by a single person who shares profits and losses with no one else is a __________.-2
a firm owned by a single person who shares profits and losses with no one else is a __________.-2

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