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This chapter. Were going to talk about different ways people have tried to put put together topologies of sex offenders. Some researchers tend to create topologies of sex offenders.
Remember that all of our sex offenders are not going to fit neatly into discreet categories. And no single typology is really going to account for all types of offenders. Most topologies have either focused on the motivation of the offender or characteristics of the offenses.
Keep in mind that most sex offenders are generalists and commit many men commit more non sexual offenses and sexual offenses. So lets talk about specialization and generalization of offending behavior. What is research tell us about sex offenders.
Small number of offenders are responsible for a large number of crimes and most sex offenders are generalists. Most do not persist in committing many sex offenses over a long period of time and the level of specialization has implications for how we would treat them. And what we should be developing for policies unfortunately.
Most of our policies are based on the assumptions that sex offenders are unique and that they specialize in sex crimes registration and notification for example are based on the assumptions that sex offenders are highly recidivist ik. Even though their recidivism is relatively low less than 14 percent of sex offenders are convicted of a new sex offense and 36 percent are convicted of any new was that offense within five years incarcerated child sexual abusers are twice as likely to have another child molestation conviction than other offenders sex offenders as a whole specialize in offense types substantially less than other types of offenders. So basically studies find few persistent sex offenders.
Only eight percent of child sexual abusers in the study had three or more convictions. One sex offenders offend along with another sex offense. Another sex offender tends to be the same one sorry.
Another sex offense. It tends to be the same one for which they originally convicted whether or not someone is a juvenile sex offender doesnt help predict the likelihood of committing sex offenses in adulthood and again recall that the greatest predictor of reoffending of becoming a sex offender is a larger number of non sexual offenses. So an australian study found that nearly 65 percent of offenders had previous conviction 863.
Were for non sexual offenses and few offenders were driven by any sexual disorder of paraphilia so less than 12 of child sexual abusers had any other paraphilia besides pedophilia. So lets look at typology of rapist technologies of rapist can fit into four categories. Exclusively sexual sadistic power control and opportunistic.
So here. We can see these four different these four different types right so compensatory their main motivation is sexual. The offender.
Only uses as much force as necessary to achieve the gratification theyre generally they might be referred to as a quote gentleman rapist. Sadistic offenders are also sexually motivated they achieve sexual gratification because from the pier pain or fear of their victims. Theyre often psychopathic and the offense may lead to sexual murder.
Power control. Rapists are not do not have a sexual motivation or thats not their primary motivation. This is an aggressive pseudo sexual act and the offender desires power and dominance over the victim motivation maybe humiliation degradation and the offenders often angry an opportunistic sex offender is awful also not generally motivated by sex.
This is a recreational situational offender. Who leads an impulsive adventure seeking lifestyle and the assault is often committed during another offense and they often lack impulse control so sexually motivated offenses first weve got this in exclusively sexually motivated offense. This is someone whos purely motivated by its purely motivated by sexual needs and this is pretty rare these offenders have difficulty achieving normal relationships they see violence as the only way to secure their goals of sexual gratification.
When feelings of inferiority can lead to exaggerated a masculine behavior and eventually rape sadistic offenders. Achieve sexual gratification from the victims pain and or fear. This is the most dangerous sex offender as it may lead to sexual murder.
They tend to be predatory exhibit. A high rate of recidivism be strangers and use violence and show a little empathy. They often share care.
With those who have antisocial personality disorder. Theyre often impulsive aggressive and unstable. They often engage in deceitful irresponsible behavior and have a reckless disregard for the safety of others and basically what happens is the pain may cause sexually excites them and this leads to an escalation in the level of violence.
They often engage in a high degree of planning choosing a pre selected location. Engaging and binding and torture power control. Rapists are rapes inherently motivated by an element of power control and graph defines rape here as a pseudo sexual act.
Its a desire of offenders to achieve power and dominance rather than sexual gratification in this viewpoint is supported by feminist theories. Who argue that rape is a consequence of deep rooted social traditions of male dominance and female exploitation for some offenders humiliation may cause sexual arousal and this is evident in cases that involve date rape drugs like or hip nam. Which results.
In black out. Memory. Loss lower resistance and an tara and tarot rip.
Anti retrograde amnesia. Power control is a motivation for rape in wartime demoralizes and dominates. The enemy and destroys community honor.
Its a extreme form of machismo and some soldiers have actually been given a direct order to engage in rape. And this became came to the public awareness with the mass rapes in bosnia in the 90s opportunistic offenders are adventure seeking individuals theyre impulsive they usually commit the offense during the course of another crime like a burglary. These are generalists who commit more non sexual crimes and sexual crimes.
They tend to be compulsive and have poor social and relationship skills. Lets look at technologies of child sexual abusers in the 70s and 80s. It was a great deal of research and the feminist movement our help exposing the extent of child sexual abuse.
So most people who abused children are socially inept in adult relationships. Have low self esteem feelings of inadequacy. A sense of worthlessness and vulnerability.
So they usually exhibit opposite characteristics of rapist rapists are overly aggressive and impulsive and insensitive to victims feelings. So its rare for a child sexual abuser to be violent. They often find comfort and relationships with children that they consider to be passive defend dependent and psychologically less threatening.
They often see themselves as unattractive having problems with potency moral inhibitions or have previously frustrating experiences with adult relationships. Another typology looks at the difference between those that offend within the family and people who offend outside of their family. So intra familial have a lower risk of reoffending.
They tend to be older and more educated more receptive to treatment often engage in alcohol or substance abuse are more likely to be alcoholics than other types of sex offenders and often experience family tensions and negative affective states studies on intra familial offenders. Have found high rates of anxiety problematic family backgrounds that confuse thinking theyre often rejected by at least one parent and have had an unstable childhood these offenders. Dont have sexual relationships with their partners as often as they want and become dissatisfied with that relationship so incestuous fathers.
Who have perpetrated against daughters saw them as second wives and those with stepdaughters often would perceive it as an affair. A variety of researchers have looked at the world of alcohol abuse with intra familial offenders offenders are often older and get angry or yelled at victims to assume control but they really resorted to violent physical behavior biological fathers who view their children were more likely to have anger and marital problems hostility and passive aggressive personalities or stepfathers were more likely to be alcoholics not care about other feelings and tend to act out these types of offenders are the least likely to show signs of psychopathy and they often use cognitive distortions they also have more deviant attitudes viewing children as sexually attractive and sexually motivated um. Eight independent variables independently discriminated between intra familial pedophiles and hiba files and 90 of cases.
This was in a study of 168 csas based on pre sentencing reports. So they were often sexually victimized. As a child.
Deaf and have a pre puberty pre pubertal victim. Having said. That seduction motive.
Age appropriate relationship. Stress. An own child as a victim social facade and anger.
So pedophiles are the least likely to of abuse have been abused as children and most likely to have pre pubertal victims and most motivated to seduce their victims. Kiba files. Are most likely to experience.
External stress and intra familial are most likely to feel.
A sense of entitlement towards their victims. Dennison found that extra familial and non biological intra family abusers have high levels of anxieties. But they have no differences in terms of impulsivity and hostility.
All sex offenders have high levels of depression and self consciousness. Interfamilial abusers with enemy with immediate family members. As victims and extra familial.
Members also have low levels of extraversion in low levels of deliberation. Theyre more likely to be suffered from self esteem and self control problems langevin um analyzed brain pathology of child sex abusers and found no differences between different types of sex offenders in regards to alcohol and drug use use of violence education and offenders. Admitting to the abuse.
The one difference. They did find is that intra familia funders are were significantly older. So.
Theres also this fixated regressed typology and classification of child sexual abusers began in earnest in the 70s. One scheme was rooted around two basic concepts. The degree to which the deviant sexual behavior is entrenched and the basis for psychological needs.
So broth created the fixed regression dichotomy. So fixated offender is persistent continual and compulsive attraction to children. Whereas.
A regressive offender is a situational offender precipitated by external stressors and this is the basis for most typology zuv csa. And its really best thought of as not to to you know opposing ideas but a continuum fixated offenders tend to be exclusively involved with children and theyre usually attracted to children from adolescence. Theyre most likely to choose extra familial victims.
Who are either male adolescents or prepubescent girls. These fixated offenders. Shows psychological and emotional characteristics of children.
And do not develop sexually to the point of finding you know their peer their peers. Attractive and desirable and so these desires are embedded in their psyche. They often recruit groom and develop relationships with vulnerable children and this often continues for several years they tend to believe theyre carrying mutual relationships.
And that the child is learning from the experience and deriving pleasure from it they committed more offenses that those for which theyve been convicted and their victims are less likely to report the abuse and when they do theres generally a significant delay. Fixated offenders. Who abuse boys are more likely to commit offences or more likely to commit more offenses than other types of offenders and these tend to amongst sex offenders.
These guys tend to have the highest risk of reoffending. Regrets defenders have a primary attraction to people their own age and the abuse is a departure from their attraction to adults. Its generally precipitated by a stressor which could be situational in nature or related to negative affective states.
These stressors often lead to poor self confidence low self esteem and a self pitying attitude and many of them either live with their partner or are married they begin offending at times. When theyre having negative thoughts and feelings and this often develops at times of unrest in their relationships. Theyre rarely attracted to a particular type of victim and tend to victimize children to whom they have easy access intra familial abuse.
Is more common here. And its more severe and stepparent families with the most frequent contact being stepfather stepdaughter mmm in these cases. Its difficult for the victim to avoid contract with the perpetrator and the behavior tends to be more intimate than abuse by strangers.
So stranger assaults tend to conviction system or mild abuses. These offenders tend to prefer heterosexual relationships. But abuse children to whom they have access.
We dont see any differences based on ethnicity urban environments or among or among various socio economic levels so interfamilial almost always fits their aggressive typology. Theres also the sex pressure offense versus a sex force offense sex pressures. When the offender either entices or entraps.
The victim into cooperating and they prefer for the victim to cooperate. If the victim resists in this case. The offender will likely not follow through sex force is when the offender uses intimidation or physical aggression in an attempt to intimidate victims.
Who can be easily can easily be overpowered and present a little resistance towards a sexual advance. The fbi has also developed topologies and theyve used graz typology as the basis and expanded upon it but not much research has been done to validate this classification system. The mtc has looked at cm3 topologies and this is developed at the massachusetts treatment center.
Which is at bridgewater and they this is child molester. Typology version three and its done by night in print. Key prints.
Key and they basically looked at two accesses access. One evaluates the level of fixed fixation with children in the offenders level of social competence access. Two evaluates the amount of contact both interpersonal and sexual that an offender has with children and includes the amount and type of physical industry sorry injury studies do find this to be reliable and consistent and that this adds developmental antecedents of child sexual abuse.
Some researchers have also looked at static information to see if theres background characteristics. One looked at criminal records. Personal history.
Social sexual. Competence and fallowe metric measures. Each group had significantly different criminal and personal backgrounds.
And all show traits of social and social sexual inadequacy lack of assertive low self esteem and negative attitudes pedophiles were older more poorly educated less likely to be married and rarely involved in non consensual crime and they have a higher degree of recidivism they show a higher degree of deviant sexual arousal and failed to show a sexual response or erotic preference for adults. What about topologies of female sex offenders well we dont know much about female sex offenders. Much of this was researches in small samples and produces conflicting results.
The age of onset is usually not young and they usually have young victims and their offending tends to be linked to abusive backgrounds or psychological disorders. Theyre only about 2 of all sex offenders and 10 of adolescent offenders. And 20 of child offenders.
Under the age of 12. Some studies show the average age of female sex offender is mid 20s to mid 30s victims are usually children rather than adults mostly under the age of 12. Theyre just as likely to have male as female victims and often expose oftener expose to their victims through a caretaking role like being a babysitter.
Many also have male co offenders and victims in these cases are often female many female sex offenders. Have been victims of abuse themselves and have a history of maltreatment and severe sexual victimization and so abuse thats been perpetrated against them often happens before the age of 16. Many when their offending are in abusive relationships and thats particularly true for co offenders female offenders are also more likely than male offenders shes alcohol and illegal drugs which is a characteristic of progressed offenders.
Matthews put together a typology of female offenders. One being the teacher lover these engage in severe cognitive distortions particularly in terms of denial of any harm. They cause there you see their actions as loving and caring.
Theres the male chorus. Male accompanying and these are women who are influenced by male abusers to offend their male partners are abusive and theyre often motivated by anger rejection and revenge. Matthews also talks about predisposed and these are the most dangerous and abusive these women initiate.
The sexual abuse and often against their own children or family members nearly all were abused as children both physically and sexually theyre often angry and have deviant sexual fantasies that are violent the offensive power and control and have serious psychological disorders. Sandin william added two categories to this the angry impulsive this is one who expressed his anger and need for power and control and male accompanied familial and non familial offenders to do basically differentiate between incestuous and non incestuous. Offenders.
Van diver and kircher talked about heterosexual nurtures nurturers these are ones who are more likely to victimize males and during a caretaking role to the victim and they tend not to do the situation as abusive non criminal homosexual offenders work in conjunction with co offenders and are more likely to have female victims and female sexual predators are the most likely to be re arrested for another sexual offense and most likely to have previous or future arrests for a crime other than a sexual offense. Theres also young adult child exploiters and these are moms who sexually abused their own children. Homosexual criminals.
Who are motivated by economic rather than sexual desires. They generally force victims into prostitution and are more likely to come into contact with police and then aggressive homosexual offenders. Who are most likely to victimize older older women and that wraps up this chapter.
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