what major advantage is conveyed by having a system of adaptive immunity? This is a topic that many people are looking for. star-trek-voyager.net is a channel providing useful information about learning, life, digital marketing and online courses …. it will help you have an overview and solid multi-faceted knowledge . Today, star-trek-voyager.net would like to introduce to you Adaptive Immunity – An Introduction (FL-Immuno/18). Following along are instructions in the video below:
Adaptive immunity an introduction recall that innate immunity forms the first line of defense and and second line of defense the function of innate immunity is to block invading microbes to destroy those which succeed in penetrating the body we studied in detail how innate immunity provide defense by inflammation phagocytosis complement succession etc. We also saw how interferons and natural killer cells contribute in defending against viral infections. Now here.
The question is what happens when first and second line of defense fails. The microbial invaders. Still have to face the third line of defense.
Which is known as adaptive immunity adaptive immunity is also known as acquired immunity it is more effective and specialized immune response against invading microbes like innate immunity we are not born with it it is acquired after birth through contact with pathogens during our lifetime let us now study the characteristics of adaptive immunity. There are four main characteristics of adaptive immunity. These are specificity diversity memory and discrimination between self and non self first understand what specificity here means specificity is the ability to distinguish between antigens.
We studied earlier that adaptive immunity acts against specific foreign antigens. This also means that it reacts in a different way to each foreign antigen.
If you remember the lectures on innate immunity youll be able to recall that innate immunity recognizes molecular patterns which are shared by many pathogens for example peptidoglycan of gram positive bacteria and lippo polysaccharide of gram negative bacteria. But here in case of adaptive immunity unique antigens are recognized. Which are specific to a particular pathogen second characteristic of adaptive immunity is diversity the diversity of adaptive immune system refers to the ability to respond to a large variety of antigens pathogens encountered by our body exist in various forms such as bacteria viruses fungi protists multicellular parasites each of these has many different strains with multiple surface features.
The adaptive immune system is capable of recognizing and responding to these pathogens. Specifically. You will be surprised to know that each of us is capable of producing billions of different antibodies and t cell.
Receptors thus adaptive immune system recognizes countless numbers of different foreign antigens. It is capable of generating. Enormous and different kind of recognition receptors.
Which contribute to its diversity next. Characteristic is memory memory refers to the ability to recognize and quickly respond to the previously encountered antigens.
The adaptive immune system has ability to recognize and quickly respond to the antigens. Which it has previously encountered when adaptive immune system comes in contact with an antigen. It produces specific antibodies and t cell receptors in addition.
It also produces memory cells next time when the same antigen attacks. The immune system. The immune response is faster and stronger.
This is because the adaptive immune system. Remembers. The pathogen and produce large quantities of same t cells or antibodies this memory forms.
The basic principle of vaccination which we will cover in coming video lectures let us now talk about the fourth characteristic. Which is discrimination between self and non self.
We have seen earlier that adaptive immune system has two important features. Specificity and diversity our immune system is able to recognize and respond to enormous and different types of microbes at the same time adaptive immunity does not react against self antigens. Remember that the hosts own cells and molecules are known as self and foreign substances are known as non self this unresponsiveness to self is known as tolerance.
So discrimination between self and non self refers to the ability of the immune system to tolerate self and recognize and destroy non self. Lets have a look at the types of adaptive immunity. There are two branches or types of adaptive immunity these are humoral immunity and cell mediated immunity humoral immunity humoral immunity is also known as humoral immune response or antibody mediated response.
The term humoral. Has been derived from latin word. Humor.
Which means fluid the name humoral immunity reflects that this branch of adaptive immunity involves molecules such as antibodies found in body fluids humoral immunity involves b lymphocytes which deal with the extracellular pathogens immunity cell mediated immunity is also known as cell mediated response or cellular immunity. We said that b lymphocytes deal with extracellular pathogens. But what about intracellular pathogens antibodies cannot gain access to microbes that live and divide inside infected cells defense against the intracellular pathogens is mediated by cells and these cells are known as t.
Lymphocytes music. .
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