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“Ethical dilemmas involve a conflict between the needs of the part and the whole the the individual versus. The organization or the organization versus society as a whole managers faced these kinds of tough ethical choices often benefit from a normative strategy. One based on norms and values to guide their decision making normative ethics uses several approaches to describe values for guiding ethical decision. Making five approaches that are relevant to managers are the utilitarian approach.
The individualism approach the moral rights approach the justice approach and the practical approach let s take a look gelateria approach is a method of ethical decision. Making saying that the ethical choice is the one that produces the greatest good for the greatest number under this approach. A decision maker is expected to consider the effect of each decision alternative on the parties and select the one that optimizes the benefits for the greatest number of people this approach is cited as the basis for the recent trend among organizations to monitor employee use of the internet and personal habits. Such as alcohol and tobacco consumption.
Because such behavior affects the entire workplace. The individual approach is a decision making approach suggesting that actions are ethical when they promote the individual s best long term interest. Because with everyone pursuing self interest..
The greater good is served in theory with everybody pursuing self direction. The greater good is ultimately served because people learn to accommodate each other in their own long term. Interest. Individualism is believed to lead to honesty and integrity.
Because that works best in the long run lying and cheating for immediate self interest. Just causes associates to lie and cheat and return thus proponents say individualism ultimately leads to behavior towards others that fit standards of behavior that people want towards themselves. However because individualism is easily misinterpreted to support immediate self gain its popular and highly organized and group oriented society of today. The moral rights approach holds that ethical decisions are those that best maintain the fundamental rights of the people affected by them thus an ethically correct decision is one that best maintains the rights of those affected by it to make ethical decisions managers need to avoid interfering with the fundamental rights of others such as the right to privacy the right to free consent or the freedom of speech.
A decision to monitor employees non work activity. Violates a right to privacy the right to free speech. Would support whistleblowers who call attention to illegal or inappropriate actions..
Within an organization. The justice approach says that ethical decisions must be based on standards of equity fairness. And impartiality three types of justice of concern to managers are first distributive justice. That requires that different treatment of individuals not be based on arbitrary characteristics second procedural justice.
Which holds that the rules should be clearly stated and consistently and impartially enforced and third and finally compensatory justice. Argues that individuals should be compensated for the cost of their injuries by the party responsible and that individuals should not be held responsible for matters over which they had no control. The practical approach is the decision making approach that sidesteps debates about what is right good or just and basis decisions on the prevailing standards for the profession or the larger society with the practical approach a decision would be considered ethical if it is one that would be considered acceptable by the professional community ethical decisions are ones that the manager would not hesitate to publicize on the evening news. And one that a person would typically feel comfortable explaining to family and friends using the a practical approach managers may combine elements of the utilitarian moral rights and justice approaches in their thinking.
About decision. Making. One expert on business ethics..
Suggests that managers can ask themselves the following five questions to help resolve ethical dilemma. I think they re useful note that these questions cover a variety of approaches discussed previously first what s in it for me. Second. What decision would lead to the greatest good for the greatest number third.
What rules policies or source or norms apply fourth. What are my obligation others and fifth and finally will be the long term impact for myself and important stakeholders. Managers will use various approaches based on norms and values to help them make ethical decisions ethics. Is the code of moral principles and values that governs the behaviors of a person or a group in respect to what is right or what s wrong ethics sets standards as to what s good or bad in conduct and decision making an ethical issue is present in a situation.
When the actions of a person or an organization may harm or benefit others ethics can be more clearly understood when compared with behaviors. Governed by law and by free choice human behavior falls into three categories codified by law free choice and ethics. The first is codified law..
In which values and standards are written into the legal system and enforceable in the courts in this areas. Lawmakers make rules that people and corporations must follow in a certain way such as obtaining licenses for driving paying corporate taxes and following other local state and national laws. The domain of free choice is at the opposite end of the scale and pertains to behavior about which the law has no say or for which an individual or organization enjoys complete freedom. Examples.
Include a manager s choice of where to buy a new suit in an organization s choice of two well qualified suppliers to use between these domains lies. The area of ethics. This domain has no specific laws. Yet it does have standards of conduct based on shared principles and values about moral conduct.
That guide an individual or an organization managers carry a tremendous responsibility for setting the ethical climate in an organization and can act as role models for ethical behavior. ” ..
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