which of the following statements is true of queen mary of england, who reigned from 1553 to 1558? This is a topic that many people are looking for. star-trek-voyager.net is a channel providing useful information about learning, life, digital marketing and online courses …. it will help you have an overview and solid multi-faceted knowledge . Today, star-trek-voyager.net would like to introduce to you Mary I (1553 – 1558) – 10 Minute History. Following along are instructions in the video below:
The first train in 10 minutes. So the lady. Jane grey is a patient to to begin with when edward the six was dying in early 1552.
He needed to that there was a succession in place for when he did kick the bucket and someone else had to rule for him now. He had several problems. The first being he obviously had no children he was 15 years old and unmarried and his sister.
The next person to essentially or his half sister to take the throne was mary. The first and there were two problems with her one was that she was a woman. Which you didnt want you ordered a man to rule at this point.
And she was catholic and of course. Edward was strictly protestant and he wanted the country to remain protestant soon or thurmond. And his chief counselor.
Persuaded him to appoint his daughter in law lady. Jane grey as successor now first in the document called the devise. He actually had the male heirs of lady.
Jane grey and becoming the the future kings of england. But lady jane grey was only 15 years old and like edward had no as so she became the next person in the line of succession. But this hadnt been ratified by parliament which you have to have an active succession to make this legal.
So technically this was all illegal and can be seen as a coup or a rebellion on northumberlands part. However mary is invited to london on the premise of come and see your dying brother before he you know he finally goes. But shes in formulas is actually a trap set up by northumberland so she flees to east anglia.
Where of course in east anglia. People didnt like northumberland because he had ruthlessly put down ketts rebellion. So the people there were more pro mary.
As well as being more catholic. Now on the 10th of july lady. Jane grey was crowned the queen of england.
But by two days later on the 12th of july mary had already assembled an army of 10000. Strong that framlingham castle on the 19th of july northumberland had marched out to meet this army.
But he found he couldnt gather enough men to deal with it and while he was on the road from london. He stopped over in cambridge. The privy council in london lost their nerve.
And they surrendered essentially to mary and by the 19th lady. Jane grey. Had been deposed and on the 1st of october mary had been crowned queen.
So lets have a look at the government of mary. So. The privy council were of course implicated in northumberland skew.
They went along with it and quite a few of them were protestants back from edward. The six rein who obviously wouldnt like the direction that mary was going to take the country and however she did have a strong catholic presence at the heart of her council her sort of special close advisers now some of the first things she did was to release a few people who had been imprisoned. Edward courtney.
He was actually a close relative of mary as well as the duke of norfolk. Who was a devout roman catholic and of course bishop stephen gardner. From the tower of london as well as this reginald pole.
Who had been an exile in italy was invited to come back. And he was actually a papal legate and she made him the archbishop of canterbury after burning thomas cranmer. Alive at the stake and they were all close advisors were a strong catholic presence now as well as she was closely advised by the spanish imperial ambassador simon renard so the close connection to both the the crowns of spain and the holy roman empire.
Now. Lets have a look at some of the religious policies. Because this is what mary is really famous for so mary actively wanted to start the counter reformation to reconvert england back to the roman catholic faith.
Now in the early 16th century martin luther kicked off the protestant reformation to reform. The catholic church and to start up essentially his new churches of protestantism. The counter reformation was the catholic response to this to try and stop this from happening.
She repealed the acts of supremacy and uniformity which were these and protestant acts that had been done under henry. The eighth and edward the the six so the act of supremacy or the acts of supremacy were the ones that made him so henry or the monarch of the country. The supreme head of the church she also reintroduced the heresy laws.
Which allowed her essentially to kill people for their beliefs. If they willed.
The wrong belief and which she did to you 300 protestant men and women who were burnt at the stake. Famously bishops like hugh latimer as well as the archbishop thomas cranmer and many of the people she burnt were actually from common humble backgrounds in the southeast and as well reginald pole. The archbishop managed to recruit a lot of priests in the north so very much depended on where in the country you were for how successful or how protestant or catholic people were in the north for example in diocese of durham.
No one burned at the stake. Because the people where was still catholic devoutly catholic. Notice our look at some of the foreign policy.
Now mary wanted to marry a catholic to produce a catholic heir to stop a protestant half sister. Elizabeth. Succeeding and reconverting.
The country essentially countering the counter reformation that mary wanted. So. She proposed to mary and prince.
Philip ii of spain. The son of charles v. Who was both the king of spain and the holy roman emperor.
But parliament was staunchly against this they didnt want a spaniard coming over and ruling for them because mary was a woman. If she married the king would then have possession over her and over the nations. Then youd have a spanish king in england.
And they had seen what the spanish had been doing in the netherlands with the inquisition which had been going since 1521 and they didnt want that in england. However mary signed sort of a compromise. The spanish marriage treaty.
Which essentially said that philip wouldnt have any of the power over her in england. So essentially he wouldnt be able to do anything in england. Without marys consent first and they were married in 1550 for now spain was at war with france.
Although the marriage alliance promised that english troops wouldnt be used to fight in phillips. Fathers wars against the french now pope paul the fourth was elected in 1555. He hated archbishop reginald pole and of course he was anti spanish because he was pro french so there were two reasons.
There that the sort of counter reformation essentially failed because the pope was against mary. Because of these political maneuverings.
Now philip didnt actually persuade mary to enter the war with france in 1557 after the death of charles v. Because of course. The clause had been that and they couldnt use troops in or oh actually i think that they just broke the the terms of the the treaty of the spanish marriage and treaty.
There that they just sent in troops anyway. But the reason being was that the french had backed a plot to overthrow mary by thomas stafford to seize scarborough which had failed as well as won by henry dudley caught the cousin of the duke of northumberland and the english finally and definitively the definitively lost color to the french during this war. Now.
Lets have a look at the economy and society. So marys reign was plagued with hardships. Including very dry summers.
Which then led to fail harvests and this failed harvest. So people were weak their immune systems were worse led to bouts and epidemics of influenza. Which was a terrible disease back then now the collapse of the aunt.
Vera cloth. Trade during this time as well starting in around 1549. I believe made the east coast.
Especially hard hit the east coast was also where the most protestants were so there was a religious tension. There was now economic tension. Because that had also been where of course you had the agrarian rebellions of ketts rebellion against enclosure that with the collapse of the envelope cloth trade.
Most of the people in the east were no longer making money so this made it really a hotbed for rebellion. Marry whoever tried to count the things like this by doing a lot of poor relief especially in the worst affected regions and really. It wasnt all doom and gloom.
Though because despite the debasement of the currency. Which had already been happening in headwords reign. And and the war that mary was kind of dragged into you by the spanish.
She did reform. The system of taxation and they never fell into serious debt despite the wall. Which is an achievement now the only rebellion of marys reign and was caused directly by the protest to the spanish marriage in 1550 for which of course people were very much against now originally several risings were planned at.
Once but the plot was foiled and only thomas wyatt and 3000. Men rose in kent now its important to remember about this rebellion that they target.
The aim of at least the leaders and a lot of the people involved wasnt to overthrow mary. They just wanted to make a point so that she wouldnt marry and philip. Now.
The reason. Im saying. This is because well one of the other people who was involved was someone ive already mentioned edward courtney.
The family of the queen and released by the queen thomas wyatt as well claimed to have fought for the queen and against northumberland. So these were people who might be seen as being more loyal to the queen. Who really just wanted her to change her mind and there were several motivations.
One you could have we obviously was religion. Many of the people were from the southeast and i think the town of maidenhead is somewhere where a lot of them were from and these were protestant port towns. Obviously mary was a catholic so that was some point of contention there as well the poor economic situation as ive mentioned in the southeast.
The gentry classes were the ones he profited. Most tremayne closure and theyd be especially hard hit as well as anti spanish sentiments. Now the rebels reached london.
But the populace of london. Who had come and supported mary at the start of her reign trapped them inside the city and mary was saved at the eleventh hour. All right.
So lets take a look at the five point timeline. Here and obviously marys reign was six years long so it really hasnt been too hard to choose these years. But lets go through them.
Anyway so 15. 53. Is the start of marys reign after defeating northumberland and the lady jane grey coup.
1554 thats the era of the spanish marriage and the treaty this who allow the marriage to philip. Which occurred and then why its rebellion in response. 1555 is one of the first burnings of protestants begin with thee and heresy laws being reintroduced in the election of the anti spanish pope paul of forth in 1557 england enters.
The spanish war with france and loses calais permanently and 1553 okay sorry that should be 1558 mary dies alright everyone so thank you very much for watching i hope you have enjoyed this video about the reign of mary. The first i hope i havent gone through too quickly and the next one should be out in three days time again. Which will be on elizabeth her half sister.
Though thank you very much for watching dont forget to like comment and subscribe all .
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