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I wanted to do in this video is familiarize ourselves with one of the most most important molecules in biology and that is glucose sometimes referred to as dextrose and term dextrose comes from the fact that the form of glucose typically typically found in nature. If you form a solution of it its going to polarize light to the right and dextre means right. But the more typical term glucose this literally means sweet in greek.
If you ask a greek friend to say sweet it sounds like lucas or im not saying it perfectly. But it sounds a lot like a glucose and thats because thats where the word comes from and it is super important because it is it is it is how energy is stored and transferred in biological systems. In fact right now when if someone were to talk about your blood your blood sugar.
Theyre talking about the glucose content. So when people talk about blood blood sugar. Theyre talking about your theyre talking about your glucose content the whole process of photosynthesis.
This is all about plants using harnessing the suns energy and storing that energy in the form of glucose when we talk about when we talk about things like respiration in our in our cells cellular respiration thats all about taking glucose and using it to full and to create atps which are the molecular currency of energy inside of our body. So these are in credit is an incredibly important molecule. We can start wreaking chains of glucose to form glycogen to form starches this along with another similar another simple sugar fructose.
You can use to form our table sugar. But even glucose by itself is sweet. So lets get familiar with it as a molecule so immediately when you look at this is it kind of drawn as a as an open chain.
We see that we have one two three actually let me number these we have one two three four five six carbons so chemical formula would be c sub six a subscript of six we have how many hydrogens how many hydrogens. We have we have 1 2. 3.
4. 5. 6.
7. 8. 9.
10. 11. 12.
Hydrogens c6h12. And then we have how many oxygens do we have have one two three four five six oxygens six oxygens. So you might notice.
We have six carbons and then the ratio for every one oxygen. We have two hydrogens which is really the ratio of hydrogens to oxygens in water and if we want to really if we really want to if we add obviously here. We dont have just two hydrogens and one oxygen.
We have 12 hydrogens and six oxygens. But its really good to even just familiarize yourselves with what are the different parts here so we see on the number one carbon. It is part of a carbonyl group.
When a carbon is bonded to double bonded to an oxygen like that thats a carbonyl carbonyl carbonyl group and in fact because this carbon. Its double bonded to an oxygen. But then its other bonds are i guess you could say a carbon chain right over here and then.
But this other bond right here is a hydrogen. We would call this an aldehyde. We would call this an aldehyde group and it makes al aldehyde.
And it would officially make the entire molecule an aldehyde if you contain an aldehyde group. You are an aldehyde so glucose and when its written. When its drawn as a straight chain or its a straight chain form it would be considered an aldehyde and then of course.
It has all these hydroxyl groups on them and these hydroxyl groups these o h.
Groups over here that would officially make glucose also it would officially make it an alcohol and its neat to keep in mind. How the structure is so you have six carbons. One of them is part of this aldehyde group.
Its part of this carbonyl right over here and then the other five are each bonded to a hydroxyl and what ive oriented. It this way four of the hydroxyls are on the right hand side and the one on the three carbon is on the left hand side and all of the other carbon bonds are with hydrogen carbon. Likes to form four covalent bonds every.
One of these six carbons has formed four covalent bonds and so you would fill up all the rest. Once youve accounted for this carbonyl. Here.
And youve accounted for all of these hydroxyls everything. Else is going to be hydrogen. Now.
This is when youve drawn when youve drawn glucose just as a straight chain. But many times you will see it in its cyclical form. Its neat to kind of think of how do you go from this form to this form over here.
And so what ive drawn here is this exact same this exact open chain. But ive started to ive started to bend. It a little bit and just to be able to keep track of things.
Lets renumber. The carbons so this is the carbon thats part of the carbonyl group. So its carbon one and then we number up from there two three four five and then that is the number six carbon.
The reason. Why ive made these this bond over here. Nice and fat is to show that its its kind of closer to us.
Its popping out of the page and as we go from the the second carbon of the first carbon. Were going back into the page. When we go from the third carbon to the fourth carbon.
We are going we are going back into the page right over here. So this big fat bond. This is between carbon three and carbon.
Two thats this thats this right over here and this going from two to one thats this bond and ill draw it a little bit kind of going in and then this bond is this bond right over here and so it take a second pause. The video. If you need but try to orient yourself to orient yourself.
Imagine were going to take this to the right like this to bring it over here and then were going to rotate. Were going to rotate this end and bend it up backwards like that to get to this form c. Six.
Is now bent all the way up is now rotated all the way up there weve bent. Weve bent this chain and the whole reason is is because this will typically react. The hydroxyl group.
This is it this is the the most typical form of glucose you will see when you see in a sick little form theres actually other forms that you can have but the oxygen that forms a hydroxyl group on the fifth carbon. It can it can attack. It can attack the the the number one carbon that forms this carbonyl group and thats because oxygen.
Weve talked a lot about it is very electronegative likes to hog electrons. So this carbon is partially positive. And so you could take one of the lone pairs.
You could take one of this oxygen right over.
Here. Its going to have two lone pairs. Let me just draw them as neatly as i can thats one lone pair and then this is another lone pair right over here.
So this oxygen can form a bond with this carbon when we learn organic chemistry and more depth wed call that a nucleophilic attack it sounds very fancy just the fact that these are drawn to each. Other this has a partially positive charge. This guy has a lone pairs of electrons that can be used to form bonds with things and so when that when those electrons form this bond or bond to this carbon.
Thats going to be this bond. This bond right over here. And then this carbon can let go this carbon can let go of the electrons in one of these let me do this in a more obvious color and in the double bond right over here it could let go of one of the bonds.
The electrons in one of the bonds and then that can be taken back by the oxygen or even better that can be used by that oxygen to capture a hydrogen proton in the solution. And actually probably part of a hydronium molecule. But let me just draw it this way this would just be used to capture a hydrogen proton that would just be a hydrogen.
A hydrogen atom without its electron. Its just a hydrogen ion. It would just be a hydrogen proton and that would form this bond that would form this bond right over here.
And let me let me just be very clear this carbon. This carbon right over. Here is this carbon right over there.
This oxygen. This oxygen is this oxygen is that oxygen right over there. And so hopefully you see how it forms a cyclone.
Youre probably saying. Oh. Wait.
Wait dont we have a little hydrogen attached. Here isnt the way. Ive drawn it looks like theres an extra hydrogen over here and then that would leave this guy with a positive charge.
We leave with a positive charge. But you can imagine were in a solution of water. Then hey i have some i have another water molecule right over here.
And you know these things are all bouncing around and interacting in different ways. But it could use let me do that in the right color. It could use so thats oxygen it could use one of its lone pairs instead of this you know this will become positive temporarily.
But then it can use it can do it can use one of its lone pairs to grab just the hydrogen proton. Which would allow which will allow this character to take its to take its electrons to take these electrons back and turn into this character and just be neutral. And then this this guy would have gained so we have a proton going into the solution you have hi.
But we took a proton from the solution. We took a proton. We gave a proton to the solution and so you could end up with this so the whole reason.
I did. This is just so. When you see it in biology class.
Or chemistry class. Youre not intimidated by it in fact. This is something thats really valuable to get very very familiar with because youre going to see glucose and other sugars in many many many different molecules throughout your academic career.
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