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The world is run by people who show up showing up is half the battle. Battle. Yeah being consistent and always making sure that what you are telling people is made up based on whos sitting in front of you i dont talk to anybody and you differently from the district chief down to the probationary firefighter.
If you do that you always have to worry about whatever audience youre in front of yeah. You work hard. I believe that your brothers and sisters believe believe in those that are leading them on top on the fire department.
Im talking about anywhere and but its also the leaders responsibility to make sure that not only the respect and the trust is earned you cant ever demand this. So you know i one of the things that ive always said is that ive never promised anybody anything other than i will work longer than harder than anybody else. And i will not stop and that theres no ulterior motive.
There shouldnt be in this world. Other than whatever. It is that you believe and i truly believe theres enough bad out.
There. Theres enough self serving interest that people who are selfless in my opinion on a daily basis deserve to have the acknowledgement for the things that they do front and center. Ive always explained and told politicians which im often difficult using firefighters dont need you coddled.
They dont need you to pat them on the head.
What they need is the acknowledgement for the things that they do nothing more nothing less to pretend like somehow the things that they do arent things that they do doesnt make any sense and the things that ive tried to get across on behalf of the firefighters is that they may be as down. They may knock us down it may hurt. But i will get up every single day and i will keep knocking on that door if knocking doesnt work i will bust it down.
If busting doesnt round doesnt work i will go through a window. The deal is is that i think firefighters believe will hardly and what people say and what they stand for because people have to trust. Firefighters half addresses right.
They trust us with their families. They trust us with their kids. So when others dont do that and hold an art.
What firefighters are thats pretty difficult thing as well so its my job to make sure that they know every day. I will be there every day. I will not stop music until the day firefighters dont believe i need to be here when we get across the finish line music music you he may or may not want to try to kick your butt so i dont know about you guys.
But i wouldnt really want to volunteer for that especially because i dont really have any upper body strength. But this is also highlighting a fact that theres very complicated sort of ethical implications. That are involved with doing human research.
Where humans are acting aggressively towards each other and not only that even if we could get the study funded.
What would the results look like well humans are extremely diverse. Theyre diverse in their drinking habits. Theyre diverse in their lifestyles and theyre also diverse in their genetic makeup.
And this is also underscored by the fact that not everybody in the population becomes violent after consuming alcohol. Some people in fact use alcohol as an excuse to become violent. And theres also those that dont really need alcohol to be aggressive and so if this is such a tricky behavior to understand in humans and such a devastating behavior that affects all of us is there anything that we can use to study.
This well what im going to propose is we use the common fruit. Fly or drosophila. Melanogaster.
And some of you guys might be thinking. Oh. God this girls going to talk about flies well in the next.
Few slides. I will have hopefully convinced you of why i think this is a good model organism for studying this behavior so some of you might be also thinking wait a second do fruit flies even get drunk so im about to show you a video. And what youre looking at right here is a fly just kind of putzing around in his vial and at the top you see is straw thats delivering alcohol vapor into the vial and after seven minutes in that alcohol vapor.
What you can see is that the flies moving around a lot more sluggishly hes losing postural control.
Its kind of stumbling about still cleaning himself and after five more minutes inside of that alcohol vapor. What you also see is he zooming around even slower until he falls back down. And he cant get back up.
So this looks pretty familiar right. I mean kind of sounds like us. And so basic answer is yes flies can get drunk well not only that but flies also share 75 of disease causing genes with humans.
Which is very substantial and it tells us if we study something in flies. We can likely translate this result into humans and flies also have a lot of readily. Available.
Transgenic lines that we can use flies also have a very short lifespan. Which means we can do a lot more experiments in a shorter period of time and finally flies also share a natural relationship with alcohol. Where youve probably seen that a bunch of flies just kind of aggregated on like a patch of rotting fruit well that piece of rotting fruit has ethanol on it or alcohol.
And what that means is that flies have evolved a lot of shared alcohol behaviors for instance they can acquire tolerance to alcohol they can also show signs and symptoms of withdrawal and they can also seek alcohol despite negative consequence so going back to the original question can we use flies as a model to look at alcohol induced aggression well it turns out that people have been studying fly aggression for a very long time and especially in the past decade. Its been studied quite extensively and the way. Thats been classically modeled is by looking at this fly aggression chamber and so what you see here are two male flies just kind of duking it out with each other and on the centre.
You see a golden ish kind of blob well thats fly food and on top of the fly food you see a decapitated female and shes decapitated because we dont want her to move from the food patch and shes there because she brings all the boys to the yard.
Okay and so this video might be a little bit too fast for the untrained eye. So im just going to show you one quick move thats a pretty robust to move that fly is often engage in called the lunge and so you can see in here. The lunge is in slow motion.
The fly is rearing up on its hind legs and just slamming down on the unsuspecting opponent and it can be pretty devastating. If youre on the receiving end of the lunge. If youre a fly alright so what our lab did was we took this very classical model of looking at fly aggression and we asked ourselves do flies become more aggressive after consuming alcohol.
And the results were pretty surprising. So on the left hand side. What youre looking at is the video of two super flies fighting in that same kind of aggression chamber.
And so you can see that the fight is very short lived. And theres a very clear winner and loser and the winner is the guy that stays on the feed patch so when we take a look at the intoxicated flies. What we see is something entirely different and you can see that both of these flies are fighting on that same food patch.
Except basically not any of them are letting up there is no clear winner or loser at this point. And theyre just really going at it with each other and so i think we can all agree that theres obviously a difference between how these sober flies fight and how these intoxicated flies fight. So we we took a look at the data by hand analyzing all of these videos.
And it was probably on the order of like 200 hours of videos that we all had to analyze and what we found was something quite striking we found that the intoxicated fly spent a greater significantly greater amount of time fighting than the sober flies did need right so okay. Why should we care that a couple of drunk flies are getting more aggressive with each other right what does this mean for us humans right come on what can we get out of this well going back to the original problem .
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